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    • GENDER
    • AGE
      • Socially Constructed= not apparent in all societies (ie. Syrian refugees don't have a birthday and so are given January 1st)
      • x3 stages of life: children, adults and elderly
        • CHILDREN= dependent on older groups
          • CHILDHOOD= socially constructed
            • UK= period of innocence, dependence + vulnerability
            • it's argued= today's society has contradictory view of childhood
              • eg. media portray kids as either little angels or little devils
            • children growing up more quickly= today's society
              • SHORTER (1975): kids in middle ages often treated negatively because of high death rates/ common for parents to forget how many kids they had (lack of emotional bonds)
                • ARIES (1975): 20th Century- 'The Age of the Child'/Society become 'child-centred'/position of children improved= moral panics (madeleine mccann), increased affluence, children rights, smaller families, compulsory education, etc
                • A03: Were laws in medieval Europe to protect kids, eg. marriage at age of 12
            • PILCHER: Modern childhood is to simply create a separation between children and adults (establish status)
              • POSTMAN: childhood= social construct/emerged due to spread of literacy (adults could verbally shield children)
                • The 'innocent' child created
                • Media causing decline in childhood/threatens it's existence
            • BENEDICT: found cultural differences regarding childhood/kids treated differently in pre-industrical societies
              • eg) Malinowski (1957)= Trobrian Islanders were tolerant of children's sexual exploration
          • YOUTH      (12-25yrs)
            • period of transition from childhood to adulthood
            • time of rebellion/ resistance
        • ADULTS= rite of passage/ puberty
          • YOUNG ADULTHOOD + MIDDLE AGE (career + family)
            • 40/50yr olds
            • BRADLEY= middle age have higher status than youth + elderly in society: hold power to work so rule the country
              • Although MA= also viewed negatively/ 'mid-life-crisis' + 'empty nest syndrome'
        • ELDERS/OLD AGE= often acquire greater status/more life experience + wisdom
          • UK= people tend to retire at 60yrs
            • don't have much status as work= most important source of identity= AGEISM (society's negative views of elderly)
            • CORNER:  OA considered a burden (dominant stereotype)- ill-health + dependent
            • FEATHERSTONE + HEPWORTH= media images of ageing based on negative stereotypes


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