African nationaism 1948-59

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  • AFRICAN NATIONALISM 1948-59
    • Political Opposition 1948
      • 1948- no black opposition group
      • ANC - 1910
      • 1910- Union of South Africa established
    • ANC + Youth League 1944
      • ANC - best educated leaders
        • took courage for new phase of mass political action - Johannesburg
        • led by Lembede tambo Sisulu and mandela
      • Mandela, Sisulu, Tambo opened all black law firm in 1952
        • later joined by Africanist lembede
          • criticied ANC for trying to impress white people later became the president of ANC
            • as some wanted to 'drive the white man into the sea'
        • Sisulu and others joined and formed Youth league
          • did not want to work with communists or indian congress
            • communist party- mandela wrote attacks on them and YL broke up their meetings
      • inspired by global anti colonial rhetoric
        • alarmed white of race and racial separation and discriminatiomn
      • NP won in  1948-- launched a programme of action in 1949
        • boycotts, resistance, work strikes and mass action
        • most members went to Fort Hare University- together they expelled Dr Xuma as too moderate ANC president
          • replaced by Albert Luthuli 1952
            • programme of action turned to more militant liberation organisation
      • ANC and other organistions
        • 1940s- communist party accepetd hard to find mass support in balcks works
          • so working with African nationalist for democratic revolution
          • social revolution next steps
          • Communism
            • Np deeply anti communist so banned in 1950
            • youth leaguers uneasy to work with them - alliance eventually became stronger
            • whites, coloured, Indians not accepted into ANC= reflected apartheid and racial division
            • groups of White liberals formed the highly crictical liberal party in 1953
              • based political on respect and equal rights
              • attracted black support but ANC and communist suspicious
              • liberalism weak and crushed by white fears and attraction of radical African nationalism
    • DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN
      • strategy: groups of volunteers to break racial restrictions like curfews and segregated facilities and risk arrest
        • target cities Johannesburg and Durban + 6000/8000 arrests made in Eastern Cape cities like Port Elizabeth and East London
      • Nelson Mandela - chief with Yusuf Cachalia from Indian congress
      • Influenced by ideas of non- violent civil disobedience promoted by Ghandi
      • CASE STUDY: East London
        • 35,000 people lived in shacks - high level of poverty and IMR - 37% of babies died first year
        • began in june 1952 with 1500 people
          • Shouted ANc slogans
          • ANC activists wore khaki uniform and ANC colours so easily identified
          • Protestors rejected the laws and used 'white only' facilities and many arrested - courts clogged
            • More youths started coming to meetings and advocating violence - a police informer chased and stoned
            • October: campaign split between moderate Gwent she and Radical Fazzie
            • November 9th: activists advertised 'religious gatherings' and 8000 people threw stones at police
              • police shouldn't stop the meeting
              • claimed there was a baton charge and someone had a gun
              • they opened fire themselves causing crowd to disperse and stone officers and burn down buildings
              • 7 African deaths with 18 injured - ANC called off the campaign
              • 2 white people were killed :a salesmen and Catholic missionary wholse car was set alight with her in it and parts of her body taken away
    • Women and ANC
      • Male leaders had patriarchal views on women's role
      • in 1943
      • women's league founded in 1948
      • Government announced 1955 - extended pass laws to women moving from city to city
      • Lillian Ngoyi staged mass protest against passes - petetion signed and 20,000 marched on union builind pretoria
      • 1957- protested outside pass office in Johannesburg
      • women also led the resistance to forced removals in Cato manor Durban in late 1950s
    • RURAL RESISTANCE
      • CASE Study: Sekhukhuneland
        • Many men living there were migrant workers who spent most of their time in Pretoria and Johannesburg.
          • Many migrants workers had also established organisations to help them with finance, transport and getting money back to their rural homes.
            • men were strongly against the idea of Bantustans because they wouldn’t be able to work in urban areas which was an important source of money for them.
              • They then adapted ANC’s ideas and were also dedicated to the idea of equal rights in SA.
        • in 1957, the gov set to impose Bantu Authorites Act with chiefs - these officals were beaten or stbbed to death and burnt out of their homes
          • police was sent in and arrests of hundreds of people many of these workers arrested or deported
      • The freedom Charter
        • ANC called a nationwide meeting with people from all backgrounds
        • they were asked their demands and written into Freedom charter: now ANC had what the people of south africa really wanted
        • the Charter congres  met at Kliptown outside Johannesburg on 26th june 1955
          • surrounded by police - difficult as most leaders were banned
        • it was read out and everyone agreed.
      • PAC
        • believed - non african had too much influence in congress movement
          • charter should be led by africans only
        • didnt care about others only wanted their civil rights
          • land should be given back to africans after independence
        • in 1958, when ANC was re-elected Leballo expelled bcuase he protested that they werent too busy with treason trail,
        • in ANC conference Luthuli compared Africanists to tribes - Africanists walked out
          • the Africanist made a separate organisation inside ANC
            • ANC members said government allowed PAC to freely speak and organise themselves beacuse of 'seperate development'

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