Affirmative Action

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Affirmative Action
    • Arguments against Affirmative Action
      • Hard-line
        • Unconstitutional
          • Warren and Burger courts of the 50s and 60s were too liberal and misinterpreted the constitution
          • USA is built on competition between individuals
          • Hard line opponents use initiative and propositions to try and get AA declared unconstitutional in those states
          • USA Based on individual rights not group rights
        • Counter- productive
          • African Americans are more likely to live in a single parent household (69%)
            • African American children are more likely to be disruptive and excluded from school
            • Caused more by African American culture and lifestyle
          • African American households contain far fewer books on average than white households
            • African Americans are more likely to live in a single parent household (69%)
              • African American children are more likely to be disruptive and excluded from school
              • Caused more by African American culture and lifestyle
          • Undermines the success of African Americans, did they achieve their success because of AA?
          • Sends wrong message that African Americans cannot compete with other races on equal terms
          • Creates a dependency culture
          • Encourages some African Americans to be lazy
          • Might encourage some African Americans to have unrealistic expectations
      • Moderate
        • Discrimination
          • White Americans living in the USA today are not responsible for slavery
          • Chief Justice John Roberts said "the way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race!"
        • No longer necessary
          • Help should be offered to the poor on an economic not racial basis
          • Grutter V Bollinger decision
          • Significant proportion of African Americans have prospered over the years, do their children really need AA?
    • Arguments For Affirmative Action
      • Employment
        • In 1960 only 15% of African Americans had 'white collar' jobs but by 2002 this had increased to 70%
        • In 1960 African Americans were virtually excluded from skilled apprenticeships but now it is normal for them to undertake these jobs
      • Housing
        • In 1960 African Americans were unable to buy in white suburbs because of discrimination
          • The 1968 Fair Housing Act made this illegal
      • Politics
        • In 1970 there were only 10 African American representatives in Congress by 2010 this had risen to 43
      • Senate
        • 1 African American Senator (1% compared to 13% of pop.)
      • House
        • 42 African Americans (10% of House but 13% of pop.) 27 Hispanics (6% of House but 16% of pop.) 31 Jews (7% of House but 3% of pop.)
      • Disenfranchisement
        • 13 states take away the right to vote from anyone convicted of a felony
          • 13% of African American men are being excluded
        • Washington DC does not elect any reps to Congress but is the bigggest black city
      • Racial Profiling
        • Particular issue with police, courts and convinctions
      • Different Punishments for drugs
        • Crack cocaine is commonly a black drug and has longer prison sentences but much shorter prison sentences for powder cocaine which is a white drug
      • Ghettos
        • African Americans who are left in ghettos are worse off than before, less money to spend on schools and libraries
      • Healthcare
        • African Americans are the poorest group so have worse access to healthcare
      • Employment
        • African Americans are the least educated group in the US so they have to take unskilled jobs
        • Recessions always hit African Americans the worst
      • Education
        • The % of African Americans finishing high school has increased from 39% in 1960 to 87% in 2000
        • The % of African Americans finishing university with a degree has increased from 9% in 1970 to 15% in 2000
      • Criminal Justice
        • Increase in drug use and dealing in the African American ghettos since the 60s
      • Reparations
        • The slave trade is the biggest crime in world history and they want compensation for this
      • Education
        • African Americans live in the poorest districts with low budgets for schools
  • No longer necessary
    • Help should be offered to the poor on an economic not racial basis
    • Grutter V Bollinger decision
    • Significant proportion of African Americans have prospered over the years, do their children really need AA?

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Government & Politics resources:

See all Government & Politics resources »See all USA voter behaviour resources »