Aetiologies of Schizophrenia- Psychologists

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  • Aetiologies of Schizophrenia- Psychologists
    • GOTTESMAN
      • % concordance rate for families higher than general pop
        • gen pop=1% MZ=48% DZ=17% aunt/uncle=2%
          • supports nature, highest rate= highest similar DNA
    • TIENARI
      • 6.7% of adoptees w/ bio mums w/schizo, also given diagnosis BUT 4% of adoptees w/o schiz mum
        • genetic link
          • %=small
    • SEIDMAN
      • examined post-mortems, schiz=more dopamine receptors
        • more ethical but can't see effect as patient=dead
          • GJEDDE AND WONG
    • BATESON
      • double bind theory= families of schiz communicate destructively
        • mother'd tell child she loves him but in a tone that doesn't suggest so
          • suggests mother's interaction= schiz
            • LIDZ
              • schiz occurs as result of destructive parental interactions w/child
                • BERGER
                  • schiz reported higher recall of double bind statements than non-schiz
                    • recall may be affected by schiz
    • FROMM-REICHMANN
      • described schizophrenogenics as mothers or families who're rejecting, over-protective and dominat.& act as contributory factors
        • STIRLING AND HELLEWELL
          • schizophrenic behaviour isn't similar to infantile behaviour
    • MISCHLER AND WAXLER
      • mothers talking to their schiz daughters= aloof & unresponsive but normal with normal daughters
        • schiz=aloof& unresponsive or aloof &unresponsive = schiz?
          • ungeneralisable to males
    • KAVANAGH
      • schiz in families w/high expressed emotion =4xmore likely to relapse than those who aren't
    • BIRLEY
      • studied people who had schiz
        • subsequent attack= 2x more stressful life events reported than healthy control group
    • DAY
      • schiz had lots of stressful life events a few weeks before onset of schiz
        • 1) schiz is already in that person = stress e.g. hallucinations=no job
          • 2) stressful life events = schiz
    • VAN OS
      • no link between life events & schiz
        • patients eq. likely to have major life event 3 month before schiz
          • patients w/stressful life events= less likely relapse
  • GOTTESMAN
    • % concordance rate for families higher than general pop
      • gen pop=1% MZ=48% DZ=17% aunt/uncle=2%
        • supports nature, highest rate= highest similar DNA
  • GJEDDE AND WONG
  • FARDE
    • there is no difference in the number of dopamine receptors between schiz &non schiz
      • difficult to draw a definite conclusion, high dopamine=schiz or schiz=high dopamine?
  • FROMM-REICHMANN
    • described schizophrenogenics as mothers or families who're rejecting, over-protective and dominat.& act as contributory factors
      • STIRLING AND HELLEWELL
        • schizophrenic behaviour isn't similar to infantile behaviour
  • BATESON
    • double bind theory= families of schiz communicate destructively
      • mother'd tell child she loves him but in a tone that doesn't suggest so
        • suggests mother's interaction= schiz
          • LIDZ
            • schiz occurs as result of destructive parental interactions w/child
              • BERGER
                • schiz reported higher recall of double bind statements than non-schiz
                  • recall may be affected by schiz
  • MISCHLER AND WAXLER
    • mothers talking to their schiz daughters= aloof & unresponsive but normal with normal daughters
      • schiz=aloof& unresponsive or aloof &unresponsive = schiz?
        • ungeneralisable to males
  • KAVANAGH
    • schiz in families w/high expressed emotion =4xmore likely to relapse than those who aren't
  • BIRLEY
    • studied people who had schiz
      • subsequent attack= 2x more stressful life events reported than healthy control group
  • DAY
    • schiz had lots of stressful life events a few weeks before onset of schiz
      • 1) schiz is already in that person = stress e.g. hallucinations=no job
        • 2) stressful life events = schiz
  • VAN OS
    • no link between life events & schiz
      • patients eq. likely to have major life event 3 month before schiz
        • patients w/stressful life events= less likely relapse
  • 6.7% of adoptees w/ bio mums w/schizo, also given diagnosis BUT 4% of adoptees w/o schiz mum
    • genetic link
      • %=small
  • examined post-mortems, schiz=more dopamine receptors
    • more ethical but can't see effect as patient=dead
    • used PET scans, more than twice as many dopamine receptors in schiz than control groups
      • PET scans= controlled & objective
        • FARDE
          • there is no difference in the number of dopamine receptors between schiz &non schiz
            • difficult to draw a definite conclusion, high dopamine=schiz or schiz=high dopamine?
    • PET scans= controlled & objective

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