aerobic respiration

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  • aerobic respiration
    • ATP
      • stands for - adenosine triphosphate
      • used in all energy- requiring processes
      • made from ADP (adenosine diphosphate), Pi (inorganic phosphate) and energy
      • the adenine is binded to ribose which is binded to three phosphates (the Pi are broken to make energy)
      • the ATP made in light-dependent photosynthesis is used to make carbohydrate in the light- independent stage of photosynthesis
    • glycolysis
      • the first stage of respiration, takes pplace in the cytoplasm and it does not require oxygen (anaerobic)
      • glucose (5 carbon monosaccharide) is broken down to two pyruvate molecules (3 carbon compound) - using 2 ATP
        • the breaking down of glucose releases 4 ATP and hydrogen ions
          • the hydrogen is picked up by coenzyme NAD to form reduced coenzyme NADH
      • if oxygen is not present then the pyruvate is converted to lactate, so the glucose is not broken down and only 2 ATP are made
    • link reaction
      • this stage (after glycolysis) takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria and is aerobic
      • the pyruvate molecule is broken down into acetyl coenzyme (2 carbon compound
        • carbon dioxide and hydrogen which produces coenzyme NADH
    • krebs cycle
      • this stage (after link reaction) takes place in the mitochondria and is aerobic
      • acetyl coenzyme joins with a 4 carbon compound (making a 6 carbon compound)
        • this is broken into a 5 carbon compound and carbon dioxide is released
          • this breaks down to reform the 4 carbon compound and releases carbon dioxide
            • coenzymes are also produced - reduced NADH and FADH. one ATP molecule is also produced for each acetyl coenzyme.
      • what remains of the glucose has been broken down. two carbon molecules enter the cycle as acetyl coenzymes and leave as carbon dioxide
    • oxidative phosphorylation
      • this stage (after krebs cycle) takes place in the inner membrane of the  mitochondria and is aerobic
        • the coenzyme made earlier is used to make ATP
      • the proteins in the membrane make the electron transfer chain, there are also stalked particles called ATPases
      • reduced coenzymes bring hydrogen atoms to the first protein in the ETC
        • the hydrogen atoms splits into a hydrogen ion and an electron
          • the electron is passed through the ETC
            • hydrogen ions recombine with the electron from the ETC to reform the hydrogen atom (this combines with oxygen to make water)
              • most of the ATP produced with respiration comes from this stage
          • the hydrogen ion passes across to the space between the inner and outer membranes and then diffuse back across the membrane through ATPase
            • this creates energy to make ATP from ADP and a phosphate molecule
            • hydrogen ions recombine with the electron from the ETC to reform the hydrogen atom (this combines with oxygen to make water)
              • most of the ATP produced with respiration comes from this stage

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