Aerobic Respiration

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  • Aerobic Respiration
    • The second stage is Link Reaction - this takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is decarboxylated, NAD is reduced and together form acetate. Acetate combines with the coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA. No ATP is produced.
      • The link reaction occurs twice for every glucose molecule.
    • Aerobic respiration is the process where large amounts of energy is released by splitting glucose into CO2 and H2.
    • There are 4 stages in aerobic respiration.
    • There are two stages in glycolysis: phosphorylation and oxidation. It occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, it doesn't need oxygen.
      • Phosphorylation - glucose is phosphorylated by adding two phosphate molecules from ATP. This creates Triose Phosphate an d 2 ADP.
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      • Oxidation -  Triose phosphate is oxidised forming 2 Pyruvate. NAD collects hydrogen producing 2 reduced NADP. 4 ATP is formed so overall there is a net gain of 2 ATP.
    • Stage 3 Krebs Cycle - Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate. This 6 C molecule is converted to a 5 C molecule through decarboxylation. Dehydrogenation also occurs, this hydrogen produces reduced NAD from NAD.
      • It is then reduced to a 4 C molecule, decarboxylation and dehydrogenation occur creating reduced FAD and two reduced NAD. ATP is produced and citrate is converted into oxaloacetate.
    • Stage 4 - Oxidative Phosphorylation this is where energy carried from electrons from reduced coenzymes is used to make ATP. Hydrogen is released by the reduced coenzymes it splits into protons and electrons, the electrons move along the ETC losing energy at each stage. This energy is used to pump protons into the membrane space from the matrix. They move down the electrochemical gradient back into the matrix via ATP synthase. This movement creates ATP.
      • The movement  of protons into the membrane producing ATP is called  chemiosmosis.


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