Atoms

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  • Atoms
    • Isotopes
      • Different atomic forms of the same element.
      • Same number of protons, different number of neutrons
      • Same atomic number but different mass number
      • Carbon-12 and Carbon-14 are common isotopes
    • Ionic Bonding
      • The transferring of electrons.
      • Structure
        • Always giant ionic lattices
        • Packed closely together.
        • Strong forces of attraction in all directions
          • High melting / boiling points
      • Properties
        • Only conduct electricity when melted or dissolved.
          • This is due to free moving ions
      • Form between a metal and non-metal
    • Covalent
      • Sharing electrons
      • Simple molecular
        • Form strong bonds between atoms
        • Has weak forces of attraction between the molecules
        • Low boiling / melting points
        • No ions so no electrical charge
        • Normally gas or liquid
      • Giant structures
        • All atoms are bonded with strong bonds
        • High melting / boiling points
        • Don't conduct electricity (ex graphite)
        • Types
          • Diamond (4 bonds, very strong)
          • Silica (Sand, giant structure of silicon and oxygen)
          • Graphite
            • 3 bonds, separated in layers
            • Layers slip past eachother
            • Conducts electricity due to one delocalised electron
    • Metals
      • Giant structure
      • Free electrons, electrical
      • In layers
        • Bendy
    • New materials
      • Behave differently depending on the conditiosn
      • E.g Nitinol- Turns into remembered shape when hot
      • Nanoparticles
        • Very small particles
        • Nano-particles are made of fullerenes
          • Which are carbon atoms arranged in a ball  or tube.
        • Uses
          • Catalysts
          • Cosmetics
          • Lubricant
          • Building materials
      • Polymers
        • Types
          • Thermo-softening
            • No cross links
            • Easy to melt
            • Remouldable
          • Thermo-setting
            • Cross links
            • Does not soften (unshapable)
            • Strong, hard and rigid
        • Materials and conditions affect properties
          • LD polythene heated to 200C under high pressure
            • Used for bags and bottles
          • HD polythene low temp with catalyst
            • Water tanks and drainpipes

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