Enzymes and Respiration

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  • Enzymes
    • Definition - Catalysts produced by living things.
    • Every enzyme is unique and fits into one substrate
    • They rate they work at changes depending on the temperature and Ph
      • If too high a temperature or too acidic or alkaline it destroys the enzymes shape and denatures
    • Types of enzymes
      • Amalase
        • Turns starch into maltose (sugars)
        • Made in the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
      • Protease
        • Turns proteins into Amino acids
        • Made in the stomach (called pepsin), pancreas and small intestine
      • Lipase
        • Turns lipid (fats and oils) into fatty acids)
        • Made in the pancreas and small intestine
      • Bile
        • Neutralises HCl acid in stomach to make conditions alkaline for enzymes to work
        • Also emulsifies fats into droplets, for bigger surface area and enzymes to work faster
        • Produced in Liver and stored in gall bladder then released to small intestine
    • Uses in industry
      • Biological detergents
        • Made of proteases and  Lipases to break down stains
          • Work best at 30-40C
      • Foods
        • Baby food
          • Protease to help babies digest easier
        • Sweetners
          • Turns glucose sugars into fructose sugers
      • Advantages
        • Specific enzymes for the reaction you want
        • Work at lower temperatures
        • Work for a long time
        • They are biodegradabe, so good for the environment
      • Disadvantages
        • Allergies
        • Enzymes can denature at a slight change in temperature.
        • Expensive to product

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