Addiction models

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  • Created by: P.Bradley
  • Created on: 04-04-15 08:53
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  • Addiction Models
    • Biological Model
      • Initation
        • D2A1
          • More Likely to initiate in an addictive behaviour e.g. smoking or gambeling
          • comings et al- found that 50% of smokers and ex smokers have the D2A1 gene
          • comings et al- also found that the gene D2A1 in other disorders such as auticism so it is suggested that it is not only responsible for a addiction
          • Bergh et al those with D2A1. Experience a reward from the mesolimbic pathaway
        • SLC6A3-9
          • Less likely to initiate in an addictive behaviour
          • Lerman supported the idea tha the gene SLC6A3-9
      • Maitenance
        • Schachter et al (1977) Nicotine Regulation model
          • Procedure: participants were either given high levels of nicotine cigarettes or low levels. Participant's ciggarette consistency was recoded
          • findings: those with higher levels of nicotine in a cigarette smoked less than those who had lower levels of nicotine in their cigarettes
        • Those with an addiction like smoking build a tollerance meaning they need higher levels of the addiction  to maintain their addiction
        • Thorgeirsson (Iceland Smoking study)
          • P: smoking history questionnaire on 50,000 Icelanders. Studied the DNA of 10,000 current and former smokers
          • They found a gene variation on the chromosome 15 on those smokers who were more nicotine dependent
        • Lerman - the reward system: Nicotine increases the amount of dopamine available to the Mesolimbic pathway. They remember the pleasure and the "do it again" feeling
      • Relapse
        • Rosenthal and Lesieur- found that pathological showed symptoms of withdrawal when they tried to give up gamberling
        • Wray and Dickerson: Gamblers who are prevented from gambling show withdrawal symptoms making them more likely to relapse
        • Chiarroci: When giving up gambling pathological gamblers turn to another addiction (Dopamine levels)
    • Cognitive Model
      • Expectancy
        • Eiser- Veteran smokers transfer positive expectations to novices
        • Brandon et al- costs vs benefits: they expect the benefits to outweigh the cost.
        • Mermelstein et al- Adolescents initiate smoking because the expect the benefit of smoking
      • Self Efficacy
        • Marlett- An individual need a coping response to increase their self efficacy. They experience cravings and lead to re-use (lapse) this lowers the self efficacy (cognitive dissonance) which increases the chance of a full relapse.
      • Recall Bias
        • Just world hypothesis: Blanco et al (2000)- pathological gamblers suffer recall bias- they only remember the wins and forgetting the losses
        • Blanco: They believe they will eventually be rewarded for their efforts- They "deserve" to win
      • Coping
        • beck's vicious cycle: -      Low mood -Using   -financial, medical, social problems
        • Griffiths- winning wasnt the main aim but staying on the machine was. Losses were classed as "near wins"
    • Behavioural approach
      • Social learning theory
        • Maintenance
          • Lambos et al- Found that peers and family members of pathological gamblers were more likely to approve the addictive behaviour making them maintain the addiction.
        • Initiation
          • Kendal and Wu- experimental smoking is a result of vicarious reinforcement of peers. They expect positive and social consequences.
          • Mayeux- found a positive relationship between smoking and popularity at the age of 16
        • Relapse
          • Lawrance and Rubison- Self efficacy is needed to be able to quit smoking- many people get told how hard it is to stop smoking which lowers self efficacy making them more likely to relapse.
      • Classical conditioning
        • Maintenance
          • Fraklin et al: The repetition of smoking creates an association between the sensory aspects of smoking. Smoking related sensory cues rapidly become conditioned stimuli
        • Relapse
          • Conditioned cues: associated with their gambling behaviour. The stimuli trigger their addictive behaviour. If they come into contact with these stimuli they are more likely to relapse.
          • Cues: receiving nicotine and the smell of smoke increases the likelihood of a relapse
          • Hogarth et al: Cravings increased significantly when a conditioned stimulus related to smoking.
      • Operant conditioning
        • Initiation
          • Griffiths found that there are different types or reward which make a pathological gambler initiate in gambling
            • Physiological rewards
            • Psychological rewards
            • Social rewards
            • Financial rewards
          • Delfabbro and Winefield: Gamblers may not always think rationale, a greater weight maybe given to the experience of winning
        • Maitenance
          • Intermittent reinforcement continue to gamble because reinforcement of the occasional pay out. They get use to the long period of time between rewards.
          • Lambos- found problem gamblers who had peer or family members who accept and reinforce their gambling they are more likely to maintain.
        • Relapse
          • Gambling have positive and negative consequence. They are conflicted between wanting to quit and wanting to carry on
  • Coping
    • beck's vicious cycle: -      Low mood -Using   -financial, medical, social problems
    • Griffiths- winning wasnt the main aim but staying on the machine was. Losses were classed as "near wins"

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