- biological approach
- Initiation: Vink et al. - smoking is due to 44% genetic factors and 56% environmental factors
- Nicotine - it's addictive nature keeps the behaviour going.
- Relapse: Xian et al. - 54% of the risk of quit failure is attributed to genetic inheritance.
- Nicotine causes the release of dopamine and therefore the smoker will want to repeat the behaviour (for the pleasure).