addiction risk factors

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  • Created by: Katie
  • Created on: 16-01-14 14:44
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    • Pathological = can lead to illness.
    • Addiction often involves three stages - initiation, maintenance and relapse. There are 3 models to explain addiction - BIOLOGICAL COGNITIVE and LEARNING
    • Griffiths identified the 'core' components of addiction. Salience - the acitivty becomes the most important one in the person's life. Mood modification - the activity produces a 'high'. tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict - with other people, work and self and relapse.
      • 1.STRESS
        • Everyday stressors - Niha - people report that they drink, smoke, gamble ect as a means of coping with daily hassles such as relationship problems. Stressors may contribute to initiation and continuation, and relapse after long periods of abstinence.
        • people exposed to severe stree e.g. loss of a parent are more vunerable to addictions. Post traumatic stress disorder is also linked to addiction - Driessen at al found that 30% of drug addicts and 15% of alcoholics also suffered from PTSD.
        • The stress of weight gain - research by Ogden and Fox found that teenage girls use smoking as weight control/ a diet strategy.
        • smoking may actually increase, not decrease stress - stress may be a risk factor but smoking doesnt have the desired effect in reducing stress. The periods in between cigarettes can be stressful.
      • 2.PEERS
        • peer pressure - peer approval or encouragement that smoking = popularity
        • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY - smoking is learnt through the observation of others and subsequent imitation of their behaviour. Duncan et al supports that exposure to peer models increases the likelihood that teenagers will begin smoking. Eiser et al suggests that among adolescents, smokers tend to befriend smokers.
        • SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY - group members adopt behaviours that are important to the social identity of that group.
      • 3. AGE
        • influence of peers decreases in later adolescents. and the role of close friends and romantic partners becomes more influencial - brown et al.
        • Fidler et al carried out a longitudinal study of nearly 6000 adolescents. Those who had tried a cihgarette by the age of 11 were twice as likely to be regular smokers by the age of 14.
      • 4. PERSONALITY
        • an 'addicitve' personality' EYSENCH proposed 3 main personality traits: P for psychotism, E for extraversion and N for neuroticism. There have been links shown between these traits and addiction.
        • Zukerman suggested that individulas high in sensation seeking (extraversion) have high susceptibility to boredom and seek novel experiences e.g. seeking a high from addiction.


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