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  • Addiction
    • Describing Addiction
      • Tolerance: desensitisation at synapse occurs and more substance is needed; metabolising enzymes become more effective; learned tolerance happens where the person learns to live normally
      • Withdrawal Symptoms: Occurs with cessation of the drug. Can be acute, hours after the drug is not taken, or post acute, years after the cessation. Psychological effects include anxiety, irritability or poor concentration. Physiological effects include tremors, nausea and vomiting
      • Dependence: this can be physical dependence, taken to feel normal; and psychological dependence, where the drug is central to someones thoughts
    • Risk Factors in Addiction
      • Family: This influence can occur through Social learning theory, schemas, parental style, and parental approval
      • Personality: Addictive behaviour is more common in those with impulsive personality, neuroticism and psychoticism
      • Peers: Peers can exert their influence. Social Identity Theory by Tajfel says that an individuals self concept is defined by the group they associate with
      • Stress:Traumatic stress is when severe stress causes vulnerability. Self medication is when people use the substance to treat the behaviour
      • Genetic Vulnerability: Dopamine receptor gene is lacking in people with addictive behaviours. Metabolising means that some people are able to metabolise certain substances faster and therefore need more to feel the rush
    • Nicotine
      • Biological explanation of nicotine: 1) Nicotine enters the brain via the bloodstream, stimulating the receptors of the ventral tegemental area, stimulating the nucleus accumbens in the process. This releases dopamaine. 2) Nicotine stimulates the production of glutamate, releasing dopamine. 3) nicotine inhibits the release of GABA, the firing of neurons lasts longer, as does dopamine. Continued activation leads to desensitisation at the synapses and develops a tolerance. Withdrawal symptoms are experienced and the body does not function in absence, and the nicotine must be taken to avoid these
      • Learning theory of nicotine: Caused by vicarious reinforcement, observing others being rewarded for smoking. Maintained through operant conditioning, giving rewards and relieving stress. Relapse occurs through classical conditioning, associating the same smoking places with the feelings
    • Gambling
      • Cognitive explanations of gambling:Skills and judgement, Ritual behaviours, Selective Recall and Faulty perceptions. Initiated through self medication, believing it will cure problems; cognitive myopia is when more emphasis is placed on current pleasure, rather than thinking of the future. Maintained through gamblers fallacy, that gamblers have unrealistic beliefs about their ability to win and influence outcomes.
      • Learning theory for gambling:  Begins by observing others being rewarded. Maintained through direct positive reinforcement by money. Partial reinforcement and Variable reinforcement. Relapse occurs through classical conditioning, same as nicotine
    • Treatments
      • Drug treatments: In terms of smoking, nicotine replacement therapy is used that gradually release nicotine into the bloodstream at lower levels. e.g patches or gum. They help control cravings. Drugs are also given, e.g. Varenicline which is a partial agonist that binds to nicotine receptors and alleviates withdrawal symptoms. For gambling,  SSRIs are used to increase serotonin away from gambling environments, to prevent impulsive behaviours.
      • Cognitive treatments: CBT is used to challenge cognitive bias , educating them on issues to do with their thought processes. This skill is then used to correct behaviours of addiction
      • Behaviourist Interventions: Aversion Therapy is the physical form of classical conditioning, e.g. an alcoholic is given a pill that makes them vomit when mixed with alcohol. They associate the unpleasant experience with drinking. Coversion Therapy is the imaginary form, the patient is told to imagine an unpleasant experience while thinking about their addictive behaviour
    • Theory of Planned Behaviour
      • Behavioural Attitude: depends on the individuals opinions of the behaviour. Subjective norms: refers to how the people around them feel about the behaviour. Perceived Behavioural control: refers to how in control the individual feels over their behaviour. These are combined to see if the persons intention to perform will change, leading to whether they actually perform
    • Prochaska's model


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