Adaption for gas exchange

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  • Adaption for gas exchange
    • Large surface area e.g. lungs
    • Moist surface for diffusion e.g. gills
    • Short diffusion pathway e.g thin walls
    • Circulatory system with blood pigments/ haemoglobin
    • External lungs minimise loss of water/heat
    • Vascular movements e.g. lungs, insect abdominal movement
    • Ensures fresh oxygen is brought to / carbon dioxide removed from gas exchange surface/ maintain concentration gradients.    
    • Frogs
      • Inactive (frog) amphibian uses its moist skin for gas exchange
      • Active (frog) amphibian uses lungs     
      • Tadpole stage uses gills
    • Reptiles and birds    
      • More efficient lungs than amphibians     
      • Air sacs act as bellows    
    • Insects
      • Have a branched chitin lined system / presence of tracheae    
      • With openings called spiracles    
      • Gases exchange directly with tissues/No blood pigment/ haemoglobin present    


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