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  • Adaptations
    • Desert Animals
      • Large surface area to volume ratio
        • They lose more body heat keeping them cool
      • Produce small amounts of concentrated urine
        • Lose less water
      • Sweat very little
        • Camels do this by tolerating big changes in body temperature
        • Kangaroo rats do this by living in burrows where it's cool
    • Arctic Animals
      • Small surface area to volume ratio
        • Less body in contact with cold air so less heat is lost
      • Thick layer of blubber (fat)
        • Acts as an insulator to reduce heat loss
        • Acts as an energy source when there is little food
      • Thick hairy coats
        • Acts as an insulator keeping heat in
      • Greasy fur sheds water
        • This reduces cooling due to evaporation
      • Camoflage
        • Most arctic animals have white fur to blend in with the ice to sneak up on prey
        • Polar Bears and arctic foxes have white fur
    • Desert Plants
      • Small surface area to volume ratio
        • Reduces water loss
      • Have spines instead of leaves
        • Plants lose water vapour through leaves so by not having leaves they reduce water loss
      • Water storage tissues
        • Cacti stores water in their thick stems
      • Roots
        • Some have shallow but extensive roots to absorb water quickly
        • Some have deep roots to access underground water
    • Deterring Predators
      • Armour
        • Thorns
        • Sharp spines
        • Shells
      • Poisons
        • Bees
        • Poison Ivy
      • Warning colours
        • Scare off predators
        • Wasps are black and yellow
    • Microorganisms
      • Extremophiles
        • Adapted to live in extreme conditions
          • Volcanic vents
          • Very salty lakes
          • High pressure on the sea bed


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