B7 - Adaptations

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  • adaptations
    • structural adapations
      • defintion
        • features of an organisms body such as shape or colour that suits it to its environment
      • example
        • camels
          • thick lips for protection when eating things such as cacti
          • humps storing fat and water in case they cant find any food or water for a long time
          • thick foot pads to protect from the hot sand
    • extremophiles
      • example
        • the aquifex type of bacteria which is adapted to survive in a range of extreme conditions including extreme temperature, acidic environments,salty environments or places without oxygen
      • definition
        • organism which is adapted to live in an extreme environment
      • types of extremophile
        • thermophiles
          • definition
            • organisms that can survive in extreme heat
        • xerophiles
          • definition
            • organisms that can survive in environments with minimal water
          • example
            • cacti
              • have spines instead of leaves to decrease transpiration and hold in water
              • have a waxy skin to hold in water
              • have extensive and complex root systems to get as much water as possible from underground
    • functional adaptations
      • defintion
        • the things that go on inside the body of an organism that can be related to processes such as reproduction and metabolism
      • example
        • brown bear
          • heart rate and body temperature drop during hibernation to conserve food and energy
          • build up a large amount of body fat in winter before hibernation which creates a store of energy and helps keep them warm
    • behavioural adaptations
      • defintion
        • the ways an organism behaves which suit it to its environment and help it survive and reproduce
      • example
        • meerkats
          • dig burrows to sleep in and hide from predators
          • form families of 20 to 50 to share jobs and responsibility - eg: have a meerkat on guard duty to look for predators
    • mimicry
      • defintion
        • when one species looks similar to another species
      • example
        • when a butterfly mimics the patterns of a butterfly with a bitter taste to make predators think it also has a bitter taste
    • definition
      • changes in an organism or species physical structure, function or behaviour which allow it to survive and reproduce


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