Unit 1: Adaptions to Biotic Factors

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  • Adaptation to Biotic Factors
    • Feeding
      • Some organisms eat a wide variety of foods to increase survival
      • Some have specific feeding requirements in captivity
        • Parrots have strong beaks to open seeds and fruit so must have suitable plants
        • Woodpeckers find larvae from rotting trees so much have rotting wood
    • Avoiding Predators
      • Some organisms have defence mechanisms e.g. toxins, thorns and bad tastes
      • Animals may use camouflage
      • Tree-living animals may have more protection
    • Symbiotic Nutrition
      • Cellulose-digesting bacteria digest cellulose in animals intestines
      • Algae in coral polyps are provided with a safe habitat and nutrients and supply polyps with carbohydrates
    • Pollination
      • Wind pollution is unreliable unless plants are in dense groups
        • Grasses in grassland
      • Some plants attract animals that transfer pollen
    • Seed dispersal
      • Wind dispersal only works well for small seeds
      • Plants with large seeds attract animals that carry away and drop seeds
    • Disease
      • Diseases naturally control populations
      • Weaker individuals are killed to benefit the whole population
    • Nutrient Supply
      • Nutrients from dead organic matter released by detrivores
      • Plants utilise nutrients and ensure future food supply for detrivores


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