Adaptation, Competition and Environmental Change

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  • Adaptation, Competition and Environmental Change
    • Desert Animals
      • Large surface area compared to volume- lose body heat
      • Efficient with water- lose less by producing small amounts of concentrated urine, sweat very little
      • Good in hot conditions- thin layers of body fat and thin coat to help them lose body heat
      • Camouflage- avoid predators or sneak up on prey
    • Arctic Animals
      • Small surface area compared to volume- compact shape, reduce heat loss
      • Well insulated- think layer of blubber which acts as an energy store
      • Camouflage- avoid predators or sneak up on prey
    • Desert Plants
      • Small surface area compared to volume- lose water vapour from surface of leaves, Cacti- spines- reduced water loss
      • Water storage tissue- cactus stores water in its think stem
      • Maximising water absorption- some cacti have shallow but extensive roots to absorb water quickly over a large area, others have deep roots to access underground water
    • Microorganisms
      • Some are known as extremophiles- adapted to to live in extreme conditions or at high pressure
    • Competition
      • Compete to survive and reproduce
      • Plants- light, space, water and minerals
      • Animals- territory, food, water and mates
      • Compete with other species for the same resources
    • Environmental Change
      • Living factors- change in a) occurrence of infectious diseases b) number of predators c) number of prey/ availability of food sources d) number/types of competitors
      • Non-living factors- change in a) ave. temp. b) ave. rainfall c) level of air/water pollution
      • These factors can cause the population size to increase, decrease or the population distribution change

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