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  • Adaptation
    • Competition
      • Animals
        • Food
        • Mates
        • Territory
      • Plants
        • Light
        • Nutrients from soil
        • Space
        • Water
      • In order to survive and reproduce organisms need to compete with each other for materials
      • When organisms compete those that are better adapted to their environment are more sucessful
    • Features
      • Plants may be adapted to survive in dry environments by
        • extensive root systems
        • Water storage tissue systems
        • Changes in surface area, particularly leaves that are often reduced in size
      • Adaptations to the following features can help animals survive in artic or dry enviroments
        • Changes in surface area
        • Amount of body fat
        • Thickness of insulating coat
        • Camouflage
    • Extremophiles
      • These are organisms that live in environments that are very extreme, they can be tolerant to high salt levels, temperature and pressures
      • Some plants eg cacti have thorns to prevent animals eating them
      • Some animals eg blue dart frogs have developed poisons to keep predators away
    • Environmental change
      • The distribution of animals and plants can be affected by changes in the environment
        • Non living factors such as average temperature or rainfall
        • Living factors such as a change in a competitor
    • Indicators of pollution
      • invertebrate animals indicate water pollution and are used as indicators of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
      • Lichens are indicators of air pollution, as their growth is affected by sulphur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere


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