Active Transport

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  • Active Transport
    • ROOT HAIRS take in MINERALS and WATER
      • Each branch of a root will be covered in MILLIONS of microscopic hairs
        • Gives the plant a LARGE SURFACE AREA for absorbing WATER and MINERAL IONS from the soil.
          • Plants NEED mineral ions for HEALTHY GROWTH
            • Mineral concentration is usually HIGHER in the ROOT HAIR cells than in the SOIL around them.
              • So they CAN'T use DIFFUSION to take up minerals from the soil.
    • ROOT HAIRS take in minerals using ACTIVE TRANSPORT
      • If minerals followed diffusion they would move OUT of the root hairs.
        • Instead they follow ACTIVE TRANSPORT. This allows the plant to absorb minerals from a very DILUTE solution, AGAINST a concentration gradient. Essential for growth. Needs ENERGY from RESPIRATION to make it work,
      • Also happens in HUMANS, e.g. taking in GLUCOSE from the GUT and KIDNEY TUBULES.
    • We need ACTIVE TRANSPORT to stop us starving
      • ACTIVE TRANSPORT is used in the gut when there is a LOWER CONCENTRATION of nutrients in the GUT, but a HIGHER CONCENTRATION of nutrients in the BLOOD.
        • If HIGHER CONCENTRATION of glucose and amino acids in the gut they DIFFUSE NATURALLY into the blood
          • When there's a LOWER CONCENTRATION of nutrients then in the blood, the CONCENTRATION GRADIENT is the wrong way, so ACTIVE TRANSPORT is used.
            • This allows nutrients to be taken into the blood despite the fact that the concentration gradient is the wrong way.
              • This mean GLUCOSE can be taken into the bloodstream when the conc in the blood is HIGHER than in the gut. It can then be transported to cells which is then used for RESPIRATION.

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