act utilitarianism

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  • Act Utilitarianism - Jeremy Bentham
    • hedonistic calculus
      • 7 aspects
        • duration - how long the happiness will last
        • intensity - what will the happiness feel like (strong/weak)
        • remoteness - how far into the future ill the happiness last
        • certainty - how much can you be sure the happiness will result the action (how certain that the result will be positive)
        • purity - is it likely the happiness will result in more happiness
        • richness - what kind of pleasure will follow
        • extent - how many people will be made happy
    • pain = unhappiness pleasure = happiness
    • "a thing is said to be In the interests of the individual when it tends to add to the sum of the total of his pleasure or what comes to the same thing, to diminish the sum total of his pains."
    • act - everyone's happiness should be considered equally
      • "everyone will count for one and no more than one."
    • approaches to pain
      • modern
        • management, avoidance, medicine, education
      • traditional/ religious
        • accept the challenge, test of faith, test sent from God
    • Robert Nozick's thought experiment - against bentham
      • where you plug yourself into a machine and experience nothing but pleasure, but its not real and you cannot get out?
      • Nozick said he believes most wouldn't plug in because people believe there is more to life than pleasure and they want to experience everything and all of life.


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