AoB - L7-9

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  • Acquisition of Behaviour
    • L7: Animal navigation and migration
      • What is navigation? Why do animals migrate?
      • 2 main mechanisms of spacial orientation used by animals in order to nativigate
        • Egocentric spacial localisation - eg path integration & dead reckoning
          • What is dead reckoning?
          • Eg, Cataglyphis ants
          • Advantages and disadvantages of egocentric spacial localisation
        • Allocentric spacial localisation - eg beacons & landmarks
          • What is allocentric spacial localisation?
          • Difference between land marks and cues
          • Water maize experiment on rats - link to L4
          • Template matching and local views - eg, digger wasps
          • Vector sum model
            • Eg, gerbils
            • Multiple bearings model
              • Benefits
              • Eg, Clarks nutcrackers
          • Route learning, eg social bees
        • Definition of spacial orientation
      • Definition of migration & why is migration adaptive to organisms?
        • Costs and benefits of migration
      • Cues used by animals to navigate, visual and non-visual
        • Integration of multiple cues
          • Eg, the sun as a compass
            • the 'ephemeris function'
            • Clock shift experiments - eg, starlings
          • Eg. magnetic sense
            • Experiments
          • Eg stars and magnetic fields  experiments on gray-cheeked thrushes and swainson's thrushes.
      • Genetic basis of migration
      • Human impacts on animal migrations
        • 1. Habitat change
          • Stopover sites - eg Red knot
          • Aquatic habitat change - eg salmon
          • Terrestrial habitat change
        • 2. Climate change
        • 3. Changing biotic interaction - eg, Snow geese in North America
    • L8: Discussion - human impacts on migration
      • Effects on the ecosystems that there are now entering/ leaving
      • Why does the animal migrate?
      • Methods used to migrate
      • Impacts of animal not being able to migrate
      • Costs and benefits to hamans
      • Solutions
    • L9: Animal territoriality & Stigmergy
      • What is a territory? Territory structure and function
      • Principle of economic dependability and territoriality & natural selection
        • Optimal territory size
          • Eg, Rufous hummingbird
          • Eg, Convict cichlids
          • Shared resource defence
            • Eg, European Robin
            • Pied wag-tail
        • Interspecific territoriality
        • Why defend a territory? Trade-off of costs and benefits
        • Eg, Golden-winged sunbird
      • Territory marks and animal communication to retain a territory
        • Visual cues
          • Static-optical cues - eg, giraffes
          • Dynamic-optical cues - eg, fiddle crabs
          • Nocturnal animals - Eg, Eagle Owl
        • Acoustic cues (links to L2 & L5)
        • Scent marking in mammals, examples
        • Scent marking in reptiles, eg, wall lizards
        • Territory dynamics - (game theoretical model)
          • Effect of population density on behaviour - exp, Red fox
      • Territory scent marking as stigmergy
        • What is stigmergy
        • Characteristics of stigmeric processes
        • Stigmergic mechanisms in territoriality formation

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