GCSE Chemistry - Acids, Bases, Alkalis and Salts

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  • Acids, Bases and Salts - GCSE Chemistry
    • Acids are chemicals which dissolve in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+
      • Hydrochloric Acid HCl
        • Chlorides
      • Sulphuric Acid H2SO4
        • Sulphates
      • Nitric Acid HNO3
        • Nitrates
      • Ethanoic Acid CH3COOH
        • Ethanoates
      • Carbonic Acid
        • Carbonates
    • A salt is formed when the hydrogen ion in an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion.
    • A base is a metal oxide or metal hydroxide which can neutralize an acid to form a salt and water only
      • An alkali is a soluble base
    • Indicators
      • Litmus Indicator
        • In neutral solution - Purple
        • In acidic solution - Red
        • In alkaline  solution - Blue
        • Acids turn BLUE litmus paper RED
          • Alkalis turn RED litmus paper BLUE
        • Alkalis turn RED litmus paper BLUE
      • Universal Indicator
        • Neutral solutions have pH values of 7
        • Alkalis have pH values ABOVE 7
        • Acids have pH values of BELOW 7
      • pH meter
        • Gives pH readings to 2 decimal places
    • Reactions with Acids
      • Acid + Base/Alkali = Salt + Water
        • All Boots Should Walk
      • Acid + Carbonate = Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water
        • All Cows Should Chew Wheat
      • Acid  + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen
        • All Mothers Should Help
    • Gas Tests
      • Test for Hydrogen - Apply a lighted splint to the gas - A squeaky pop is heard
      • Test for Carbon Dioxide - Bubble the gas through limewater - limewater turns milky
    • Equation for neutralization H + OH = H2O

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