Acids and Bases

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  • ACIDS AND BASES
    • Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
      • Acid = Proton donor
      • Base = Proton acceptor
      • Acid-base equilibria = transfer of protons
    • pH of Strong Acids
      • pH = -Log10[H+]
      • [H+] = 10-pH
    • pH of Strong Bases
      • Ionic Product of Water
        • Water is weakly dissociated
          • Kw = [H+][OH-]
        • [H+] = Kw/[OH-]
          • pH of Strong Bases
            • Ionic Product of Water
              • Water is weakly dissociated
                • Kw = [H+][OH-]
              • [H+] = Kw/[OH-]
      • Buffer Solutions
        • Resists changes in pH when small amounts of acid or alkali are added, or when it is diluted
          • At an equilibrium
        • pH of buffer solutions
          • [H+] = Ka[acid]/[salt]
          • pH = pKa x Log10([salt]/[acid])
      • pH Curves
      • Titration Calculations
        • Strong acid, strong base
          • -Calculate number of moles of H+ ions and OH- ions in each solution  -Work out which ion is in excess -Calculate the total volume of the mixture -Calculate the concentration of the excess ion -Calculate pH
        • Weak acid, strong base
          • -Calculate number of moles of weak acid and OH- ions in each solution -Work out which one is in excess -Calculate the total volume of the mixture -Calculate [H+] and pH from excess ions
      • pH of Weak Acids
        • Weak acids and bases only dissociate slightly in aqueous solution
        • Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA]
          • For a weak acid in aqueous solution, [H+] = [A-]
            • So Ka = [H+][H+]/[HA]
          • Ka = Acid dissociation constant
        • pKa = -Log10Ka

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