Acids and Alkalis 

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  • Acids, Bases and Neutralisation reactions
    • Acids
      • Strong acids
        • eg. HCL, fully dissociates in aqueous solution and releases of its hydrogen atoms as H+ ions
      • All acids contain hydrogen in their formulae
        • Not all compounds that contain hydrogen are acids
      • When dissolved in water they form hydrogen ions, protons (H+) into the solution
      • Common acids
        • Hydrochloric acid (HCL) forms a sulphate salt
        • Sulphuric acid (H  SO   ) forms a sulphate salt
        • Nitric acid ( HNO  ) forms a nitrate salt
        • Ethanoic acid (CH  COOH) forms an ethanoate salt
      • Weak acids
        • eg, ethanoic acid (vinegar) partially dissociates is an aqueous solution
    • Bases and Alkalis
      • All carbonates, hydroxides, metal oxides and ammonia are bases
      • A base is a substance that neutralises an acid to form a salt
        • Sometimes water and carbon dioxide is formed
      • An alkali is a metal base that dissolves in an aqueous solution to form hydroxide ions (OH-)
        • NaOH + aq --- Na+ + OH-
          • Here the sodium hydroxide when dissolved in water is releasing sodium and hydroxide ions
    • Neutralisation
      • Acids with Alkali's
        • examples include
          • KOH
          • NH
          • NaOH
        • Acid + Alkalis       Salt + Water
      • Acids with carbonates
        • examples include
          • CaCO
          • Na  CO
          • CuCO
        • Acid + Carbonate       Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
      • Acids with hydroxides
        • Produces a salt and water only
      • Acids and metal oxides
        • examples include
          • MgO
          • CuO
          • CaO
        • Produces a salt and water only
    • Difference between strength of acids and concentration
      • High concentration
      • Low  concentration


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