Chemistry - Acids, Alkalis and Salts

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  • Created by: Olivia27
  • Created on: 30-09-15 16:18
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  • Acids
    • Acids, Alkalis and Salts
      • Alkalis
        • Ph8 or higher
        • Produces the OH- ion when dissolved in water
        • Common Alkalis
          • Sodium Hydroxide
          • Ammonia Solution
        • Green/Blue
      • Reactions
        • acid + alkali = salt + water
        • acid + base = neutral
          • alkaline + soluble base
        • acid + metal = salt + hydrogen
        • acid +metal oxide = salt + water
        • acid + metal carbonates = salt +water + carbon dioxide
      • Experiments
        • Indicators
          • In Acid
            • Litmus = Red
            • Phenolphthalein = colourless
            • Methyl Orange = red
          • In Water
            • Litmus = light purple
            • Phenolphthalein = colourless
            • Methyl Orange = yellow/orange
          • In Alkali
            • Litmus = blue
            • Phenolphthalein = Hot Pink
            • Methyl Orange = Yellow
        • Hydrochloric Acid Reactions
          • Magnesium Ribbon + Hydrochloric Acid
            • Effervesed
            • Popped when gas met lit splint
            • Gas = Hydrogen due to squeaky pop
            • Amount of metal decreased
          • Hydrochloric acid + magnesium oxide
            • Ph 14 Blue
          • Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Hydroxide
            • Ph 9 Blue
          • Hydrochloric Acid + Potassium Chloride
            • Effervesed
            • Turned limewater cloudy white
            • Produced Carbon Dioxide
        • Making Soluble Salts (Using excess metal, metal oxide, metal carbonate)
          • Copper II Oxide + Nitric Acid = copper II nitrate + water
          • Magnesium + Sulfuric Acid = magnesium sulfate + hydrogen
          • Copper Carbonate + Ethanoic Acid = Copper Ethanoate + Water + Carbon Dioxide
          • Method =         Mix two together and filtrate through funnel to remove excess solid. Place in evaporating dish = crystallises.
        • Making Soluble Salts (Using Tritration)
          • Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid = Sodium Chloride + water
          • Ammonia Solution + Sulfuric Acid = Ammonium Sulfate
          • Method =         Alkali in conical flask, Acid in Burette. Take measurement of acid. Add Acid to Alkali until indicator goes colourless. Measure acid left in burette. Repeat experiment without indicator. Indicator used = Phenolphthalein
    • Ph6 or below
    • produce the H+ ion when dissolved in water
    • Common Acids
      • Hydrochloric Acid
        • HCl
        • Produces Chlorides
      • Nitric Acid
        • HNO?
        • Produces Nitrates
      • Sulfuric Acid
        • H?SO?
        • Produces Sulfates
      • Ethanoic Acid
        • CH?COOH
        • Produces Ethanoates
    • Yellow/Green

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