achievement for 11 hear old puils

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  • Achievement in literacy and numeracy for 11 year old pupils.
    • Definitions
      • Educational Achievement
        • the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals
      • Social class
        • Social groupings or hierarchy based on differences in wealth, income or occupation.
      • labelling
        • A process of attaching a definition or meaning to an individual.
      • Streaming
        • Children are separated into different ability groups, then each group is taught separately in all subjects.
    • Trends shown in data Fig.2
      • Boys less likely to achieve level 4 in English
      • Boys and girls who have free school meals, are doubly less likely to achieve level four in both subjects.
      • Graph shows students who are not achieving.
      • There is not any real gender differences in maths.
      • Two main factors that cause underachievement is gender and pupils who on free school meals (social class)
      • Working class boys are the lowest achievers.
      • Published 2011
        • Education system constantly chances, data may be slightly out of date.
      • Graph produces statistical, numerical or quantitative data
        • Source of data: National Pupil Database.
          • Primary data as it is collected from all primary schools nationally.
            • Representative as it has a wide geographical spread.
            • May lack validity because some schools may distort their figures, to prevent them from looking badly when they are published. this would reduce the accuracy of the data in the graph
            • Reliable because there will be a standardised procedure to collect the data. this allows the survey to be repeated each year.
            • Includes all state schools in the country.
          • No reasons, limits validity. To get round this problem researchers could conduct interviews with children and teachers in state schools.
      • Free school meal children living in poverty, likely to come From single parents or both parents unemployed, dependent in benefits.
        • Children grow up in poverty are likely to do less well in education because they are less likely to have access to educational resources.
    • Explanations
      • Factors impacting class achievement
        • External (home)
          • Material deprivation.
            • A child receiving free school meals may mean it is likely that they are living in overcrowded housing, which may also mean that they di not have a quiet area to work, this could impact their achievement because they may find it hard to concentrate.
            • A child receiving free school meals may not be consuming the nutrients they need for a balanced diet. this could weaken the immune system, resulting in the child experiencing illnesses. absence from school  could make them behind in their learning.
          • Low income could impact a child's educational achievement because they could miss out on experiences such as trips or music lessons which may enhance their education. they may also need to use 2nd hand equipment passes down in the family.
          • Attitudes and values
            • W/c parents may place less value on education as they have not benefited from it themselves. this could make children on free school meals less ambitious as they may receive less encouragement to achieve. as a result of lower levels of motivation these children under-achieve.
        • Internal (school)
          • Teachers label students, which can affect achievement. this is because a teacher may form a judgement on the child's social class rather than their ability. if a child is labelled negatively, this could discourage them form doing well in school.
          • Anti-school culture
            • W\C people tend to be placed in low streams, these students may have a low self esteem as they gained an inferior status. they form subculture's in these streams they reinforce each other's negative attitudes towards school, impacting their educational achievement.
          • Streaming
            • w/c children are more likely to be in a low stream. this could be due to the lack of educational resources available to them. Streaming would impact class achievement because they may perceive themselves as failures, this would limit their motivation to work hard..
      • Reasons why girls are doing well in literacy
        • Lack of male role models, in primary school makes education feel 'feminised' which can put boys off from learning
        • Boys may not achieve highly in literacy because Mums tend to not read to their sons meaning they do not learn a wide vocabulary from a young age.
        • Girls do more communicating activities when they are younger, such as mums and dads. this would involve them practising their literacy skills, making them more likely to achieve level 4. unlike boys leisure activities are less likely to involve literacy skills such as football.
        • Equal opportunity polices may provide an incentive for girls to achieve, this may change girls priorities and ambitions encouraging girls to get a career, meaning they work hard for their education.
          • E.g. GIST (Girls into science and technology)
          • WISE (Women into Science and engineering)
        • Boys may not be as higher achievers in English because reading books in schools tend to be fictional. girls are generally interested in fictional books, this means if there are not books avaible that boys are intested in, it may discourage them to read preventing them learning new vocabulary.
    • Another factor that impacts educational achievement is ethnicity
    • support which has been offered to improve achievement differences in social class and gender.
      • Raising boys achievement project.
        • strategies implemented innschools to improve boys achievement. these were whole school approaches, target and monitoring approaches, classroom interaction learning styles in literacy and social culture where the project tried to change images of 'laddish' masculinity where boys feel it is not cool to not learn.
      • Reading champions scheme
        • Schools recuit boys to become reading champions they then encourage other boys to get intonreading by running reading activities.
      • Pupil premiums
        • It is additional funding for schools to raise attainment of disadvantaged pupils, aiming to close the gap of underachievement, schools receive funding for pupils that are eligible for free school meals, funding does not go to the school directly it goes to local authority which looks after the child in need.


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