Achievement Motivation, Attribution, and Aggression

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  • Achievement Motivation
    • The drive to achieve success for its own sake
    • Personality Factors
      • Need to Achieve (Nach)
      • Need to Avoid Failure (Naf)
    • Situational Factors
      • Probability of Success
      • Incentive Value of Success
    • Nach
      • likes challenge
      • likes feedback
      • not afraid of failure
      • high task persistence
      • will choose difficult or demanding tasks
    • Naf
      • avoids challenges
      • does not take risks
      • often gives up
      • does not want feedback
      • choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved
    • Low Probability of Success
      • sportsperson has to strive to win
      • incentive to achieve success is very high
      • sportsperson very happy if they win
    • High Probability of Success
      • sportsperson doesn't need to try too hard to win
      • incentive to achieve is low
      • a win is not as pleasing to the performer
    • Promoting Nach
      • increase positive reinforcement
      • achieveable goals
      • ensure some situations guarantee success
      • gradually increase task difficulty
      • ensure tasks are challenging
      • ensure probability of success is good
      • ensure the incentive value of the success is high
    • Reducing Naf
      • reduce punishment
      • focus negative feedback on effort rather than ability
      • avoid performer believing failure is due to internal factors
      • reduces risk of learned helplessness
      • avoid situations where defeat or failure is inevitable
      • alter the criteria for success
    • Attribution
      • The process of giving reasons for behaviour and ascribing causes for effects
      • Weiner's Model
        • has four attributions
          • ability
          • effort
          • luck
          • task difficulty
        • attributions are arranged in two dimensions
          • locus of causality
            • internal
            • external
          • stability
            • stable
            • unstable
        • High achievers attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors
        • Low achievers attribute success to external factors and failure to internal factors
        • If we attribute success or failure to internal factors then we expect the same next time
      • Attribution Retraining
        • changes a person's tendency to acribe reasons for success or failure so it is more like that of a successful performer
        • attributions affect pride, satisfaction, and expectancy of success
          • pride and satisfaction are maximised if success is attributed to internal factors and motivation is enhanced
          • if success is attributed to external and uncontrollable factors then satisfaction would be less intense and motivation less
          • if failure is attributed to internal controllable factors then the overpowering emotion would be dissatisfaction and motivation would be reduced
      • Self-Serving Bias
        • successful performers take credit for success
        • attribute success to their own outstanding qualities
        • enhances feelings of self-esteem, pride, and self-worth
        • blame external factors for failure and avoids internal, controllable, and stable factors even if factors are true
        • people protect their self-esteem rather than look for true attributions which would reflect the reality of the situation
      • Learned Helplessness
        • repeated failure can lead to learned helplessness
        • a belief acquired over time that one has no control over events and that failure is inevitable
        • characterised by a feeling of hopelessness in which as person with physical potential to achieve highly in sport no longer feels it is possible for them to do so
        • general (global) learned heplessness
          • feeling of failure is applied to all sports
        • specific learned helplessness
          • feeling of failure is applied to a specific sport or group of sports
    • Aggression
      • Aggression is the intention to injure or harm outside the rules of the game
      • Assertion is the use of force within the rules of the game
      • Antecedents of Aggression
        • physiological arousal
        • underdeveloped moral reasoning
        • bracketed morality
        • high environmental temperature
        • reaction to a hostile crowd
        • losing
        • frustration at poor performance
        • physical pain
        • unfair officiating
        • retaliation to an incident
        • pressure to win or succeed
        • copying behaviour of others
        • 'grudge match'
      • Theories of Aggression
        • Instinct Theory
          • aggression is innate and instinctive
        • Frustration-Aggression Theory
          • aggression is caused by frustration as the sportsperson is blocked of their goal
          • causes a drive towards the cause of the frustration
        • Social Learning Theory
          • aggression is learned by observation of others' behaviour
          • imitation of this behaviour is reinforced by social acceptance of this aggressive behaviour
        • Aggressive Cue Hypothesis
          • frustration causes anger and arousal which creates a readiness for aggression
          • the aggression can then be initiated by an incident during the erformance or game
      • Deindividuation
        • people behave differently when by themselves compared to in a crowd
        • contrast between behaviour in a crowd at work and in a sports setting
      • Responsibility
        • performer must accept that aggression is the wrong thing to do and must modify their behaviour accordingly
        • influential others can exert a moderating influence on the performer
          • coaches
          • teacher
          • officials
          • parents
      • Controlling Aggressive Behaviour
        • Governing Bodies
          • use strong officials where appropriate
          • implement punishment (remove points etc.)
          • reward non-aggressive acts
          • encourage suitable use of language
          • attempt to reduce media sensationalism in connection with aggression
        • Coaches and Players
          • implement stress management and relaxation techniques
          • initiate self-control strategies
          • attemt to reduce arousal levels in players
          • performance goals rather than outcome goals
          • maintain a healthy will-to-win attitude without making it everything
          • remove players from the field if they are at risk of aggression
          • channel aggression towards a performance goals
          • use peer pressure to avoid 'letting the side down'
      • Attribution
        • The process of giving reasons for behaviour and ascribing causes for effects
        • Weiner's Model
          • has four attributions
            • ability
            • effort
            • luck
            • task difficulty
          • attributions are arranged in two dimensions
            • locus of causality
              • internal
              • external
            • stability
              • stable
              • unstable
          • High achievers attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors
          • Low achievers attribute success to external factors and failure to internal factors
          • If we attribute success or failure to internal factors then we expect the same next time
        • Attribution Retraining
          • changes a person's tendency to acribe reasons for success or failure so it is more like that of a successful performer
          • attributions affect pride, satisfaction, and expectancy of success
            • pride and satisfaction are maximised if success is attributed to internal factors and motivation is enhanced
            • if success is attributed to external and uncontrollable factors then satisfaction would be less intense and motivation less
            • if failure is attributed to internal controllable factors then the overpowering emotion would be dissatisfaction and motivation would be reduced
        • Self-Serving Bias
          • successful performers take credit for success
          • attribute success to their own outstanding qualities
          • enhances feelings of self-esteem, pride, and self-worth
          • blame external factors for failure and avoids internal, controllable, and stable factors even if factors are true
          • people protect their self-esteem rather than look for true attributions which would reflect the reality of the situation
        • Learned Helplessness
          • repeated failure can lead to learned helplessness
          • a belief acquired over time that one has no control over events and that failure is inevitable
          • characterised by a feeling of hopelessness in which as person with physical potential to achieve highly in sport no longer feels it is possible for them to do so
          • general (global) learned heplessness
            • feeling of failure is applied to all sports
          • specific learned helplessness
            • feeling of failure is applied to a specific sport or group of sports

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