Abyssinian Crisis

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  • Abyssinian Crisis: 1935
    • Why Mussolini invaded
      • Easy
        • Thought he would succeed
        • Thought League of Nations wouldn't interfere
        • Confident at League's failure in Manchuria
        • Signed Stresa Front in 1935 with France and Germany
      • Empire
        • wanted to rebuild the ancient roman empire
        • National Pride: 1896 had tried to invade but failed
      • Economy
        • Manchuria had natural resources & good land for grazing animals
        • Help end suffering after Depression
    • How Mussolini invaded
      • DECEMBER 1934:
        • Italians clashed with Abyssinians
        • League tried to intervene but found it difficult to stop Mussolini
          • Italy and Abyssinia both members of League
      • JANUARY 1935
        • French foreign minister, Pierre Laval, made with M. and made secret agreements
          • Broke covenant of secret treaties
        • France promised to give M. land in Chad. Also let M. deal with Abyssinia how he saw fit
      • OCTOBER 1935
        • League issued Moral Condemnation
        • Troops still entered Abyssinia on 3rd.
          • Italy= modern and advanced. Abyssinia= small army with spears
          • Bombed tribal villages and used chemical weapons to terrorise them to surrender
      • MAY 1936
        • Italian troops took capital
    • League's response
      • Failure to close Suez Canal
        • Britain and France could close canal to stop M. moving troops and supplies
        • Wanted to avoid upsetting M.: worried he would unite with Hitler
      • Hoare-Laval Pact: Dec 1935
        • Britain and France had a settlement to offer Italy- secret
        • agreed M. would be given areas of Abyssinia
          • land not theirs to give: did not consult Italy or Abyssiania
        • Proved Britain and France were willing to undermine League for self-interest
      • Trade sanctions
        • ITALY
          • Didn't ban oil, steel, iron or coal
            • M. said if coal and oil were banned: stop- need fuel for tanks
          • British worried that banning trade = unemployment
        • ABYSSINIA
          • No arms traded with Abyssinia
          • Nothing to defend themselves
      • End of the League
        • Italy left League in May 1936
        • Britain, France and USSR left to run League
          • Britain and France shown they were interested in own welfare than protecting convenant

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