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  • ABH
    • the AR is: assault occasioning (causing) actual bodily harm
    • defined in Miller as 'any hurt or injury calculated to interfere with the health and comfort of the victim'
    • the injury cannot be trivial or insignificant as confirmed in Chan Fook
      • psychiatric harm can also amount to ABH if it is 'more than mere emotions such as fear, distress or panic' - Chan Fook-
        • also seen in R v Ireland - silent phone calls-
    • ABH can include the cutting of hair - DDP v Smith - and temporary loss of consciousness - T v DDP-
    • the MR is: intention or recklessness to the initial assault or battery - R v Savage -  defendant does not need intention or recklessness, only the MR of assault or battery
      • introduction
        • AR of S47
          • AR of assault/battery
            • causation: but for test(white) and significant contribution (pagget) and intervening acts
              • define ABH
                • MR of ABH
                  • MR of assault/battery
                    • conclusion and sentencing
    • S47 of the offences against the persons act 1861


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