A2 Theorists and Theories

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  • A2 Theorists and Theories
    • Child Language Development
      • Spoken
        • Lenneburg
          • Posed the Critical Period Hypothesis- Without linguistic interaction before ages 5-6 language development is severely limited (Genie)
        • Genie case study
          • The ZPD (Zone of proximal development)- A child needs a caregiver to interact and encourage a response. this helps a child to apply this 'model' to similar situations
        • Stages of language acquisition
          • Cooing (4-7 months)- Comfort sounds and vocal play
          • Babbling ( 6-12 months)- Repeating consonant and vowel sounds
          • Proto-words (9-12 months)- Word-like vocalisations(ie 'mmm' and 'give me that')
          • Holophrastic (12-18 months)- One word utterances
          • Two-word (18-24 months)- Two word utterances
          • Telegraphic (24-36 months)- 3 or more words
          • Post-telegraphic (36+ months)- More complex utterances
        • Often emitted features
          • Verb tenses, Confuse pronouns, Dummy do, Copula (is, are), Auxiliaries
        • Hallidays' functions of language
          • Instrumental-Fulfil a need
          • Regulatory- Influence behaviour
          • Interactional-Develop social relationships
          • Personal- Convey opinions
          • Representational- Convey facts and opinions
          • Imaginative- Role play
          • Heuristic- Learn about the environment
        • Skinner
          • Behaviorist- Suggested that language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement ( i.e. reward a child, children repeat what they hear, correct their mistakes)
        • Piaget
          • Cognativist- Stated that a child needs to have developed certain mental abilities before they can acquire particular aspects of language
        • Berko and Brown
          • Looked at inflections and the order they are learnt: 1. -ing words (Present participle)        2. Plural (-s) 3. Possessive ('s)                  4. Articles (A, the)               5. Past tense (-ed)                6. Third person singular verb endings (Love-s)         7. Auxillery (Be)
          • Posed 'Wugs' experiment that backed up Chomskys LAD theory
        • Chomsky
          • Nativist- Argued that a child's ability to acquire language was inbuilt and innate. Language isn't taught but is a natural development. Explains how children overgeneralise and why they acquire in a certain order(LAD)
      • Written
        • Kroll
          • Preparation (0-6 years)- Basic motor skills with some principles of spelling (Ie drawings and graphemes)
          • Consolidation (7-8 years)- Writing is similar to spoken language (More colloquial, clauses joined by and)
          • Differentiation (9-10)- Aware that writing is different to speech, stronger understanding of writing for and audience and cause
          • Integration (10+)- 'Personal voice' in writing (Own thoughts, controlled writing with appropriate linguistic choices made, essay writing)
        • Vygotski
          • Private speech- When a child talks aloud to itself (Major step to a child's mental development- Evidence it is thinking for itself)
          • The ZPD (Zone of proximal development)- A child needs a caregiver to interact and encourage a response. this helps a child to apply this 'model' to similar situations
        • Bruner
          • LASS model- explains how childrens speech is developed by adults reading to them (Inspired by Vygotski)
          • Includes four phrases: Gaining attention (Pictures), Query (Asking what it is),            Label ( Tell them what it is),             Feedback (Respond to utterence)
        • Barclay
          • 7 stages of writing development----------------- 1. Scribbling 2. Mock handwriting 3. Mock letters            4. Conventional letters            5. Invented spelling         6. Appropriate spelling         7. Correct spelling
      • Other theories
        • Motherese
          • It is usually delivered with a "cooing" pattern of intonation different from that of normal adult speech: high in pitch. Baby talk is also characterized by the shortening and simplifying of words. 
        • Caregiver language
          • Ask lots of questions, Repeat certain structures, uses imperatives, encourages a response
        • More knowledgable other
          • A person or object that contains more information or knowledge than the child. Its function is to inform the child or act as a model.
    • Language Diversity
      • Varieties
        • Old-English
          • Pre caxton, 400-1150, Used more inflections to differentiate between subject and object,           No set agreed spellings (Eggies), More flexible language-Less specific
        • Early Modern English
          • French words, Caxtons printing press,  1450-1700, The great vowel shift (15-1600),  þ- Diagraph thorn 'Th', Grapheme ?-Long s
        • Late Modern English
          • Standardisation due to Lowth and Johnson, 'standard english formed', English became an international language, Neologisms became more regular, Science and Technological advances of industrial revolution created many new words
        • American
          • Will include cultural references mainly and a few phonological differences
        • BVE
          • Emmitting the /g/, /th/-> /f/, /ð/->/d/,      /?/-> /n/
          • Will include cultural references mainly and a few phonological differences
        • Australian
          • Jamaican
            • /th/ in thick-> /t/, /th/ in them-> /d/, /h/ sound is always emitted, similar formation of words and phrases as children
        • Accents
          • Northern
            • /?/ is used instead of /?/ in /Cup/
            • /?/ used instead of /ch/
          • Most other accents/ dialects will be shown by the lexis used and cultural influences etc
      • Key Constituents
        • Grammar- Word order, verb formation, auxilleries
        • Orthography- Spelling
        • Morphology- Word formation
        • Discourse/ Pragmatics- How the text is structured/ Power and who its aimed at
        • Graphology- Marks on the page (Capitals ect)
        • Lexis- Semantic field, word choice
        • Phonology- Sounds
      • Points to remember
        • Contextual factors
        • Refer back to the question
        • Support the point with a quote

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