A2 PE Physiology 2

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  • A2 PE Physiology 2
    • Training methods
      • Contious
        • long duration, low intensity CV use - borg / karvonen
      • Interval
        • calculate rest periods sprint /endurance use bog /karvonen
      • Plyometric
        • eccentric (stretch shortening cycle) power and speed DOMS
      • Circuit
        • stations and rest periods can suit anybody
      • Weight/ Resistance
        • high weight low rep - strength hi reps low weight - endurance
          • 1 rep max 60-70 endurance 70-85 dynamic strength 5-95 power 95+ max strength
      • Speed
        • assisted or resisted
      • Farlek
        • speed play games players exceed ;lactic acid threshold and enable recovery
      • Core
        • postural improvements firm base for other sports, muscles of torso
      • SAQ
        • ladder, hurdles = more coordinated and more efficient recruitment of muscles at speed
      • Strecthing
        • Stretching occurs in sarcomere and connective tissue
          • sarcomere is a basic unit of muscle and the stretch happens between the actin and myosin.
            • The tendons absorb the rest of the stretch as the connective tissue. can be static, dynamic, ballistic, active, passive and PNF
    • Effects of Fatigue on performance
      • depletion of fuels PC and glycogen
      • accumulation of waste products CO2 and lactic acid
        • acidic enzymes cannot work so energy cant be produced
      • dehydration
        • lost from plasma - heart has to work harder, perfomance drops
      • Central Governor theory
        • the brain says you are fatigued to protect you
    • Recovery
      • 4R's
        • 1.Remove lactic acid
          • 2 hours needed for process - slow phase lactacid
        • 2. Replace ATP
          • 120 seconds need 2-3 litres - fast phase alactacid
        • 3. Replenish myoglobin
          • with oxygen 2 minutes - fast phase alactacid
        • 4. Restore Glycogen stores
          • days or up to 2 hour for short burst exercise- depends on diet
        • First 3R's need EPOC
      • after exercise you have elevated temp, hormone, metabolism, HR and respiratory rate
        • to help recovery lactic acid is converted
      • Cool down speeds up thi process
    • Physiological Ergogenic AIDS
      • ice baths
        • reduce inflammation flushes out metabolites help microtears
      • physio/acupuncture / medicine
      • compression clothing
        • better muscle alignment , reduced muscle damage, better circulation, increased power and endurance
          • also help venous return in cool down reducing DOMS
      • Diet
        • sodium, bicarbonate, carbohydrate and creatine loading
      • using music over 110 BPM  for power, quiet under 110 relax/skill
    • Warm up
      • gives 10% increase in  speed of chemical reactions
      • prepares for the activity
      • reduces the risk of injury- enhancing performance
      • increases in
        • HR
        • Ventilation rate
        • CO and vascular shunt (7 minutes needed)
        • muscle core temp
        • better o2 extraction
        • faster nerve conduction speed
        • more synovial fluid produced
        • skills also improved due to better hand eye coordination and neuromuscular mechanisms
    • Cool down
      • gradual decrease in activity then strecthing
      • slows CO, CV and respiratory rates and metabolism
      • faster lactic acid removal
      • should last 5 mins
      • decrease the chance of
        • dizziness or fainting
          • by increasing venous return (blood returning to the heart)
            • this prevent Venus pooling at extremities
        • encourages the lowering of blood levels of adrenaline
          • if stays high can have a huge stain on heart

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