A2 P.E Physiology 1

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  • A2 P.E Physiology
    • Energy Systems
      • Types
        • ATP 2 seconds
        • ATP-PC 10 SECONDS mAX POWER ANEROBIC
        • Lactic Acid System - under 1 minute -glycogen, aerobic high energy
        • Aerobic - last indefinitely GHO, fat and protein
      • CHO, Glucose Transport
        • regulated by insulin
        • glycogen stored in the muscle and liver
        • 90 minutes of use
      • Fat triglycerides fatty acids and glycerol
        • stored in muscle and adipose tissue
      • Protein tissue structure and repair
        • not stored as fuel but used in endurance exercise
      • Creatie Loading
        • NOT BANNED  increases muscle PC stores used by stength and power atheres
    • Hydration
      • 1% body weight loss =5% performance loss
        • 5% body loss = cant complete exercise
      • lose not just water but electrolytes, sodium and potassium
        • Normal water will stop dehydration but not replace electrolytes and CHO instonic balance within body
      • Hypotoxic
        • less than body
        • get in quicker but need more of them
      • Hypertonic
        • more than body
        • Take longer but give greater improvements to endurance athletes
    • Acclimatization
      • Temp, humidity, altitude, pollution, prevailing winds and playing surfaces
      • Heat
        • Humid heat do not sweat as well an body over heats
        • Dry heat sweat a lot so body dehydrates
        • illness
          • Cramp due to electrolyte loss
          • Heat syncope (fainting)
          • Heat exhaustion (vague lots of symptoms)
      • 14 days to adapt- the higher your VO2 the quicker you acclimatize
        • More plasma - improved CV system, reduced HR and better vascular shunt more blood to skin and working muscle, sweat earlier
      • Altitude
        • every 1000m above see level = drop in VO2 of 5-7%
          • les partial pressure of o2
        • Training methods
          • LHTH live high train high
          • LHTL live high train low
            • showed only imprvemnts for endurance athletes
          • LLTH live low train high
        • Increase in EPO(RBC) only happens whilst high and takes 3 months for max benefit
          • increases vascularization and mitochondria /myoglobin remain high afterwards
    • Periodisation
      • 8 make 1 mesocycle- 8 mesocycles make 1 macrocycle
    • Aerobic training benefits
      • increase in
        • Stroke Volume= more blood pumped out of ventricle in one beat
        • Cardiac Output= volume of blood pumped out of heart in 1 min is more
        • Vascularisation= growth of blood vessels increasing oxygen supply
        • Number of RBCs= more oxygen can be delivered to muscles
        • Cardiac Hypertrophy= thickening of heart walls increasing hearts power
        • end systolic volume = higher volume of blood left in ventricles after contractions
        • mitochondrial density= train or compete for longer and faster
        • mitochondrial size= more energy produced as more o2 can be supplied
        • myoglobin levels= more o2 received from RBC and transported to mitochondria cells
        • hyaline cartilage thickness= more support given to working muscles and connections between ribs and sternum
        • muscle tone
        • ability to use fat as fuel
      • Decrease in
        • Body Fat
        • Resting HR
    • Anaerobic training benefits
      • Increase in
        • capacity for cardiac hypertrophy = heart gets stronger and bigger and still same amount of blood enters heart
        • End systolic volume
        • strength in ventricular contraction=  volume of blood pumped out of heart is higher
        • Bradycardia= lower resting HR
        • VO2 MAX= maximum rate of oxygen consumption is higher
        • ability to work longer at VO2 MAX
        • capacity to tolerate /utilise/ buffer and transport lactic acs
      • decrease in
        • end systolic volume
        • Body fate levels = due to elevated metabolic rate after exercise
    • Anaerobic Threshold
      • OBLA point reaches level where lactic acid is being created faster than it can be removed
        • 4mmol
    • Borg Scale
      • 15 point scale between 20% effort and 100%
        • based on HR but really is just perceived exertipn
    • Karvonen Scale formula for optimal training HR
      • HHR= MHR-RHR
        • Heart rate reserves
        • Max heart rate (220-age)
        • resting hear rate
        • Then multiply the answer by the percentage training intensity E.G. 60% x 0.6 then add your RHR to get your training HR
  • Types
    • ATP 2 seconds
    • ATP-PC 10 SECONDS mAX POWER ANEROBIC
    • Lactic Acid System - under 1 minute -glycogen, aerobic high energy
    • Aerobic - last indefinitely GHO, fat and protein
  • Vascularisation= growth of blood vessels increasing oxygen supply

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