A2 Media - Effect theories and theorists- Genre and Representation

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  • Created on: 23-05-13 10:14
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  • A2 Media- Effects theories and theorists- Genre and Representation
    • Genre
      • Altman
        • Altman says that companies use genres and it allows the audience to know the difference between the products.
          • This mean that different genres of Films/Ads are produced to appeal to different target audiences
      • Cawelti
        • Genres are like myths.
        • Genres tell society about itself
        • It is suggested that the popularity of a genre is reflects the values of society
      • Ryall
        • Ryall says that genre supervises the relationship between the producers and the audience
        • Genre guides the production of the Film/Ad by the producers and how it is interpreted by the audience
      • Neale
        • genres are made up of, not just groups of films. but also audience expectations and discourse, including marketing and media discussion
        • Genres help audiences understand texts (Films)
    • Representation
      • Saussure
        • Saussure argues that meaning is created by the creation and interpretation of signs.
        • A sign is made up of the SIGNIFIER (the object, word etc.) and the meaning it creates.
        • Representations are constructed through signs which signify a meaning, these can be POLYSEMIC, meanin gthey have more then one meaning (polysemy)
      • Mulvey
        • Mulvey believes that female characters tend to be displayed for the visual pleasure of male characters and male spectators.
        • Feminist view!
        • Mulvey identifies an important process whereby women are coded as the object of the gaze (and represented sexually).
        • Her work has been criticised for only focusing on the male, heterosexual spectator, and ignoring the possibility of the male providing visual pleasure.  Dyer has also questioned her distinction between object of the gaze=passive, subject of the gaze=active.
        • A postfeminist perspective may view the position of object of the gaze as a position of power, and the subject of the gaze as a submissive position.
      • Dyer
        • Dyer suggests that stereotypes perform a number of functions in media representations. 
        • He argues that stereotypes reinforce the idea that there are big differences between different types of people.
      • Baudrillard- postmodern theorist
        • He argues that representations no longer refer to real things.  The representation has become more real to us than the reality, and has actually replaced it. 
          • Simulacrum – when a copy replaces the original. 
          • images are now hyperreal – they have no relationship to the real
          • Celebrities are a good example of hyperreality – their media image constructs a reality which does not refer to an actual reality.
            • images are now hyperreal – they have no relationship to the real
          • Baudrillard would question the concept of representation as a process which represents the real.


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