A2 Sociology beliefs in society

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  • A2 Sociology
    • Theories of religion
      • Functionalist
        • Durkheim - sacred and profane - collective conscience - cognitive functions
        • Bellah - civil religion
        • Malinowski - in times of crisis and uncertainty
      • Marxism
        • Lenin - 'spiritual gin'
        • Marx - religion as an ideology - religion and alienation - opiate of the people
      • Feminism
        • Religious forms of feminism - Piety movements
        • How does religion disfavour women?
          • Religious organisations are mainly male-dominated
          • Places of worship exclude women
          • Sacred texts
      • Substantive - Functional - constructionist
    • Religion and social change
      • Religion as a force for social change
        • Weber
          • Calvinism - predestination- divine transcendence - asceticism - vocation or calling
          • Confucianism and Hinduism
        • Civil Rights movement 1960s
          • Taking the moral high ground
          • Channeling dissent
          • Acting as the honest broker
          • Mobilising public opinion
      • Religion inhibiting social change
        • Marxism
          • Bloch; Principle of Hope - religion has a dual face (can inhibit and encourage social change)
          • Gramsci; hegemony - the ruling use ideas of religion to maintain control - a means of ideological domination
    • Secularisation
      • UK
        • Church attendance - fell from 1.6 (1960) to 0.8 (2013) - 'bogus baptisms'
        • Religious affiliation - decline in Christianity, increase is islam
        • Religious institutions - weakened by the states power - decline of clergy
      • Explanations
        • Weber - rationalisation- disenchantment - technologicalworldview
        • Social and cultural diversity - decline of community - industrialisation - diversity of occupations, lifestyles and cultures
        • Bruce; Cultural defence and cultural transition
      • America
        • Declining church attendance - 40% of Americas (questionable?)
        • Secularisationfrom within
        • Religious diversity
    • Religion in a global context
      • Religious fundamentalism
        • Davie; Fundamentalism and modernity
        • Giddens; Cosmopolitanism
          • Responses to postmodernity - resistance identity - project identity
        • Bruce; Two fundamentalisms - the west and the third world
      • Cultural defence
        • Poland and Iran
      • Religion and development
        • God and globalisation in India
          • Hinduism and consumerism
          • Hindu ultra-nationalism
        • Capitalism in East Asia - Emerging economies
    • Religion, renewal and choice
      • New forms of religion
        • Davie; From obligation to consumption - believing without belonging - vicarious religion - spiritual health service
        • Hervieu-Leger; Spiritual shopping - cultural amnesia
        • Postmodern religion
          • Helland - online religion and religion online
          • Religious consumerism
          • Self-religions and the New Age
      • Religious market theory
        • Stark and Bainbridge - Compensators - cycle of renewal - religious competition
        • America vs Europe
        • Supply-led religion
      • An altetnative  view; secularisation and security
        • Existential security theory
        • State welfare and religiosity
        • Europe vs America
    • Ideology and science
      • Science as a belief system
      • Ideology
    • Organisations,movements and members
      • Types of religious organisation
        • Church - Sects - Denominations - Cults
        • World-rejecting NRMS - World-accomodating NRMS - World affirming NRMS
        • Sects (result from schisms) and Cults (audience and client cults and cultic movements)
      • Explaining the growth of religious movements
        • Marginality
      • Religiosity and social groups

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