A2 Approaches

  • Created by: Byrney27
  • Created on: 01-06-20 10:54
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  • A2 Approaches
    • Psychodynamic approach (1st force)
      • Often associated with Freud, theorised that mental activity is mostly unconscious and it shapes people’s behaviour. 
        • Traumatic childhood experiences pushed into the unconscious mind can lead to mental disorders
      • The psyche
        • Ego
          • Rational part – reality principle     Balances ID and superego.   18 months – 3 years Conscious and unconscious parts of the mind.
        • ID
          • Immediate gratification/ seeks pleasure Selfish/ hedonistic Innate instincts for sex/ aggression Birth – 18 months Unreasonable behaviour  Unconscious part of the mind.
        • Superego
          • Moral part – morality principle. Ideas of how to behave adopted from parents/ society during phallic stage as consequence of resolving Oedipus/ Electra complex. Makes us feel guilt.             3-6 years. Conscious and unconscious parts of the mind.
      • States of mind
        • Preconcious - contains material that can be brought to the concious when directly thought of - 10% to 15%
        • Unconcious - complete lack of acces - 75% to 80%
        • Concious - we are aware of our thoughts - 10%
      • Psychosexual stages
        • Phallic
          • 3.5 to 6 years, genitals are the main source of pleasure
            • Oedipus/ Electra complex
            • Successful completion = identifies with same sex parent. Unresolved conflict = phallic personality
        • Anal
          • 18 months - 3.5 years, defecation is the main source of pleasure
            • Successful completion = potty trained. Unresolved conflict =  anally retentive/ expulsive personality
            • Over gratified = no comment when defecates. Under gratified = punishment/ humiliation when defecates
        • Latency
          • 6 years to puberty, main focus is developing same sex friendships/ hobbies
            • No requirement for completion
        • Oral
          • 0-18 months, mouth is the main source of pleasure
            • Successful completion = weaning. Unresolved conflict = oral fixation
            • Over gratified = endlessly feeding. Under gratified = restricted feeding times/ amounts
        • Genital
          • Puberty onward. Genitals are main source of pleasure, less so than Phallic stage
            • Successful completion = development of healthy adult relations. Unresolved conflict = difficulty forming straight relationships
      • Ego defence mechanism
        • Displacement
          • Emotions directed away from source/ target towards other things
        • Repression
          • Burying unpleasant thought of desire in unconscious
        • Denial
          • Threatening thought is ignored/ treated as if false
    • Humanistic approach (3rd force)
      • Rogers and Maslow (1950)
        • ·         Holistic, anti-reductionist. No point looking at one aspect of an individual, multiple factors, don’t focus on childhood
        • Free will, self-determining and active agents. Choose what we do and in control of our behaviour
        • Idiographic, anti-nomothetic. All unique, no point trying to generalise to groups
      • Maslow's hierarchy of needs
        • Social needs
        • Self-esteem needs
        • Safety needs
        • Self-actualisation
        • Physiological needs
      • Carl Rogers
        •  The purpose of Rogers’ therapy (client-centred therapy) is to increase feelings of self-esteem by showing unconditional positive regard to reduce incongruence by closing the gap.
          • Self-concept – how they see themselves
          • Ideal self – the person they wishes to be
          • Congruence or incongruence – how close or fare apart they are
            •  Congruence; when the self-concept and ideal self broadly match
            • Incongruence; when a gap exists between a person’s self-concept and their ideal self
        • Conditions of worth – when a parent places limits/ boundaries on their love for their children. 
        • Unconditional positive regard – providing affection/ respect without conditions attached. 


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