Plant cell adaptations

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  • Plant Cell Adaptations
    • Leaf Epidermis cells
      • Cells that form the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. The cells of the epidermis secrete a waxy cuticle that forms a waterproof coating. This prevents water loss.
    • Campanion cells
      • Joined to the sides of phloem cells by plasmodesmata. This allows substances to be passed into the phloem cells.
    • Spongy mesophyll cells
      • These form the gas exchange surface. They are irragulary shaped and contain plenty of gaps for gases to circulate and provide a large surface area for gas diffusion.
    • Xylem cells
      • Form xylem vessels for the transportaion of water from the roots to the leafs. Produce ligin, which is deposited in cell walls to kill them. It provides strength.
    • Phloem cells
      • Make up the long tubes that carry dissolves sugars around the plant.
    • Palaside cells
      • The layer immediatley below the upper epidermis. Their function is to photosynthesise, they are well place near the surface to absorb as much sunlight as possible. Long thin cells forming a continuous layer to trap as much light as possible. Contain many choroplasts that contain chlorophyll.
    • Guard cells
      • Found in pairs surrounding the stomata in the lower epidermis. Their function is to open and close the stomata allowing gases to enter the leaf whilst contolling water loss. Stimulus is light, to allowthe movement of gases for photosynthesis to occur.
    • Root hair cells
      • Found in the tip of the root. Their function is to absorb water by osmosis. and to take up dissolved mineral ions from the surrounding soil. Mineral ions are usally found in low concentrations in the soils and so must be taken up by active transport. The cells therefore have protein pumps. The cells contain many mitochondria to provide ATP needed for active transport.


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