6.4 Gas Exchange

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  • 6.4 Gas exchange
    • Fundamental distinctions
      • Ventilation: air moving in& out of the lungs
      • Gas exchange: Exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide in the lungs
      • Respiration: chemical reaction that occurs in living cells to release energy
    • Inspiration
      • Diaphragm & external intercostal muscles contract
      • Internal intercostal & abdominal muscles RELAX
      • Volume of thoracic cavity increases causing lungs to increase in size
      • pressure in lungs decreases
      • air rushes in to even out pressure
      • Ribs move up & out & diaphragm moves down
    • Antagonistic muscles
      • occurs in pairs: as 1 muscle contracts, other relaxes
    • structure & function of ALVEOLI are linked in gas exchange
      • TYPE 1 pneumocytesthin walls: short distance for diffusion
      • TYPE 2 pneumocytesproduce surfactant fluid: prevents adhesion by reducing surface tension and helps gas diffuse
      • large blood supply: maintains concentrationgradienj in blood
      • large surface area of alveoli: facilities diffusion
    • Lung cancer
      • cells that grow divide uncontrolable
        • body can eliminate cells but not always
    • Emphysema
      • causes destruction of alveoli
        • big holes and thicker walls


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