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  • 1066
    • Harold's mistakes
      • 'Rashly went into battle, perhaps would have been better to wait longer in london for Edwin and Morcar's armies and other, could have expanded his army too 30,000 from his 7,000
        • Also the longer he waited the weaker Williams army would have been, nearing end of fighting season, W's army would have had to set up camp spread out to get food and suffered harsh winter conditions.
        • Harold acted With a hot head, as William purposely lay waste to lands in Wessex, Harold's earldom, so Harold took it personally.
      • Mistske to have not recalled the Fyrd, or to have kept them so long in the summer.
      • Marching his army so rapidly up and down the country (reached the north in 4 days) tired out his army.
      • However Harold did show skilled leadership and desition making at the battle of Stanford bridge which his army won very effectively.
      • However it is arguable that Harold shouldn't be blamed for the mistakes made at Hastings, falling for feigned retreat, as that was the fault of his army.
    • Diffrerence in the quality of the armies.
      • William's army was made up of 300,000 knights as well as cavalry and archers.
        • The fact that William was on horseback allowed him to control his army better
          • More mobility meant that when a roumor went through his ranks he was dead he was able to ride around and show people he was in fact alive.
      • Harolds army was predominantlymade up of sussex  and Kentish farmers and peasants who had very little military skill. In fact even Harold housecarls and personal body guards were less well trained than the Norman knights,
    • Luck / Hardrada's invasion
      • It was pure luck that the winds changed in the perfect time to coincide Williams invasion with the end of Hardrada's.
      • Was luck to have found timber in a Roman fort at prevent that he could use to build a castle, too cover a retreat.
    • William's milliaty skill and leadership.
      • William was a very experiianced military leader as he had spent most of his life fighting to restore order to Normandy
        • Had also spent much of his young life of the run for his life , likely to have hardened him  to hardship and made him focused on his goals.
      • Had very good control of his army as  was very adaptable in the field.
        • When he saw how , when his soldiers fled, that the A-S army followed breaking the shield wall he then adapted this and used it to round the up and kill them and then continued to use it in the rest of the battle.
        • As the A-S had the upper ground and had a shield wall, William ordered his archers to fire upwards so they would actually hit some of Harold's army.
        • He had them under very good disapline, before setting sail to England they waited at Dunes for 6 weeks without plundering.
      • When they  first landed, William fell over when stepping off the boat, he was smart enough to say '
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