6 - Humanism, Arts and Learning in Henry VII's Reign

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  • Humanism, Arts and Learning
    • Humanism and Humanists
      • Humanism - founded on the rediscovery of Latin and Greek texts. Intellectual trend.
      • Early influential Humanists were William Grocyn + Thomas Linacre
        • John Colet (1467 - 1519) was very influential.
      • Erasmus first visited England in 1499 (Dutch scholar) + his friendship with Thomas More would boost humanist ideas in Henry VIII's reign
      • During Henry VII's reign humanism + the Renaissance had little influence on England
    • Developments in education
      • 'Song schools' + 'reading schools' provided education for the very young
        • Secondary education consisted of grammar schools most of the time
      • 53 new grammar schools were built between 1460 and 1509
        • However access to education depended on where you lived + how wealthy you were
        • Central to the garmmar schoool curriculum was latin
          • The 1480s saw the beginning of a humanistics approach to learning
            • The teaching of English remained a by product of Latin
      • University education remained solely with Oxford and Cambridge
        • Oxford had expanded in the first half of the 15th century with new colleges
          • Cambridge expanded during Henry VII's reign with new colleges
    • Drama
      • Plays were sometimes presnted at Church ale festivals
      • Troupes of players sometimes entertained the nobility + toured the country
      • Mystery plays at the feast of Corpus Christi by guilds of towns like York were famous
        • Performances were important festive occasions - portrayed religious and moral messages
    • Music
      • Local bagpipe + wind groups entertained people on saints days
        • Sometimes accompanied by bawdy driinking songs
      • Great choral pieces sung in cathedrals
        • This underwent a change in the renaissance - more melodic + complex
        • The Eton choirbook shows these pieces
          • Composers of this had links to the King
            • Thomas Browne was of the house of Earl of Oxford
              • Also created secular songs for entertainment
            • Robert Fayrfax benefited from the patronage of Lardy Margaret Beaufort + the King
              • Also created secular songs for entertainment
      • Music was performed at court or in the homes of the wealthy
      • Carls at Christmas were also poopular
    • Art and Architecture
      • Massive amount of re/building parishes
      • Many places were built in a Gothic perpendicular style (emphasis on vertical lines + pointed raches, large windows)
        • In 1502 Henry VII approved this style for Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey
      • English culture followed gothic styles of northwestern Europe
      • 1475 William Caxton's printing press printed traditional medieval works
        • Works printed by Caxton became more unfashionable with the emergence of 'humanist literature'
      • By Henry's death humanist influences had reached England
        • Thomas More + John Colet became more fashionable

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