Module 5: Section 4/5 - Plant and Animal Responses Part 1

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  • 5.5 Plant/Animal Responses (Nervous system)
    • The Human Nervous System
      • Afferent Nerves
        • nerves that travel towards the CNS
      • Efferent nerves
        • nerves that travel away from the CNS
      • CNS (central nervous system)
        • brain and spinal cord
      • Peripheral Nervous System
        • Consists of nerves running to/from CNS
        • Divides into:
          • somatic nervous system (voluntary system)
          • Autonomic Nervous system (involuntary system)
    • somatic nervous system
      • sensory
        • made of sensory neurons
        • carries impulses from sensory organs to CNS
      • Motor Nerves
        • all motor neurons
        • signals from CNS to muscles/glands
      • Mixed nerves
        • Spinal nerves from spinal cord containing both sensory and & motor neurones
    • Autonomic nervous system
      • divided into:
        • Sympathetic nervous system
          • fight or flight
        • parasympathetic nervous system
          • rest and digest
          • feed and breed
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
      • thoracolumbar outflow
      • cervical region e,g, pupils dilating
      • Thoracic region e.g. heartbeat acceleration
      • Lumber region e,g, pupil dilation
      • sacral region e.g. inhibits bladder contraction
    • Accelerator Nerve
      • slender/unmyelinated nerves
      • establishes sympathetic innervation of the heart
    • Parasympathetic Nervous system
      • controlled by the vagus nerve
      • 'a carniosacral outflow'
        • comes mainly from the cervical or sacral region
    • Vagus Nerve
      • parasympathetic nervous system
      • passes through the neck into the thorax and abdomen
      • Contains  motor/sensoryfibres
      • slows down heart rate and constricts pupils
      • e.g.
        • constricts pupils
        • slows heart rate
        • stimulates bile release
    • Two - Neuron Knee Jerk reflex arc
      • 2.
        • Receptor
          • stretch receptor in quadriceps muscle
      • 1.
        • stimulus
          • stretching of quadriceps (caused by ligament being hit between your knee cap and tibia)
      • 3.
        • coordinator
          • spinal cord (does not cross brain)
      • 4.
        • Effector
          • quadriceps muscle
      • 5.
        • response
          • contraction of quadriceps muscle causing straightening of leg
      • the stretching receptor sends impulses down sensory neuron which connects directly to motor neuron in spinal cords.
        • there is no relay neuron for this response.
          • However, the inhibitor response requires action potentials to pass through a relay neuron before the motor neurone can stimulate the hamstring
    • ways to stimulate the vagus nerve
      • laughing
      • exercise
      • Untitled

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