Transition metals - basics

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  • Created by: Agata
  • Created on: 09-05-16 17:24
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  • 3.5.4 - Transition Metals
    • A transition metal is a metal that can form one or more stable ions with incomplete (partially filled) d-subshell
      • It's the incomplete d-subshell that causes the special chemical properties of transition metals. D-block elements without an incomplete d-subshell don't have these properties
    • SCANDIUM & ZINC
      • Sc and Zn are NOT transition metals as their stable ions don't have partially filled d-subshell
        • Scandium only forms one ion Sc^3+, which has an empty d-subshell.
          • Sc Electronic configuration: [Ar]3d^1 4s^2
            • When it loses 3 electrons to form its ion, the ion has electronic configuration of [Ar]
        • Zinc only forms one ion, Zn^2+, which has a full d-subshell
          • Zn electronic configuration: [Ar]3d^10 4s^2
            • When it loses 2 electrons, both are removed from 4s subshell - electronic configuration of the ion [Ar]3d^10
    • TRANSITION METAL IONS
      • Transition metal atoms form POSITIVE IONS. When this happens the S electrons are removed FIRST, then the D electrons.
        • To write the electronic configuration of transition metal ion follow these steps:
          • 1) Write down the electronic configuration of the element.
            • 2) Work out how many electrons have been removed to make the ion.
              • 3) Remove that number of electrons from the electronic configuration taking them out of the S-orbital FIRST and then the d-orbitals
    • ELECTRONIC CONFIGURAT-IONS
      • 2 Rules: 1) Electrons fill up the lowest energy subshells first. 2)Electrons fill orbitals singly before they start sharing.
        • Exceptions:
          • Chromium has one electron in each orbital of the 3d subshell and just one in the 4s subshell- this gives it more stability.
          • Copper has a full 3d subshell and just one electron in the 4s subshell - this gives it more stability
    • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TRANSITION METALS
      • All have HIGH DENSITY
      • All have HIGH MELTING and HIGH BOILING POINTS.
      • Their IONIC RADII  are more or less the SAME.
    • CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TRANSITION METALS
      • They can FORM COMPLEX IONS
      • They form COLOURED IONS
      • They're GOOD CATALYSTS
      • They can exist in VARIABLE OXIDATION STATES.

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