2D: Bonding and Structure

  • Created by: Strelly22
  • Created on: 15-02-21 17:57
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  • 2D: Bonding and Structure
    • Bonding
      • Ionic bonding
        • an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
        • between a metal and a non metal
      • Covalent bonding
        • the strong electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the nuclei of bonded atoms
        • determine how many valence electrons each bonding atom has by using the group number on the periodic table
          • pair up unpaired electrons between atoms to form covalent bonds
        • bonding pair = shared pair of electrons
        • lone pair = a pair of electrons in the outer shell not used in bonding
        • dative covalent bond = a shared pair of electrons in which the bonded pair has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only
        • average bond enthalpy = the average enthalpy change which takes place when breaking by homolytic function one mole of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species
      • Metallic bonding
        • the electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
        • lattic of positive ions held together by a sea of delocalised electrons
        • High mp and bp
        • good conductors of electricity when solid or molten
        • insoluble in water or non polar solvents (though some metals react to form a soluble product)
    • Shapes of molecules
      • VSEPR
        • Valence electrons in bonding pairs and lone pairs repel each other as far apart as possible
        • lone pairs repel slightly more than bonding pairs
      • linear
        • 2bp, 0lp
        • 180
      • non linear
        • 2 bp, 2lp
      • trigonal planar
        • 3bp, 0lp
        • 120
      • tetrahedral
        • 4bp, 0lp
        • 109.5
      • octahedral
        • 4bp, 0lp
        • 90
      • trigonal pyramidal
        • 3bp, 0lp
        • 107
    • Intermolecular forces
      • london Forces
        • the more electrons, the stronger the forces
        • the  the contact area, the stronger the forces
        • temporary attraction between molecules
      • hydrogen bonding
        • polar covalent bond = a bond with a permanent dipole, having positive and negative partial charges on the bonded atoms
        • polar molecule = a molecule with an overall dipole, having taken into account any dipoles across bonds and the shape of the molecule
        • a strong permanent dipole attraction between a delta positive hydrogen on one molecule and a lone pair on a delta negative O, F or N on a different molecule
        • ice floats on water ? open structure / lattic
      • permanent dipole dipole interactions
        • a small charge difference that does not change across a bond, with partial charges
      • electronegativity = the ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond
      • F = 4, O = 3.5, N = 3, Cl = 3


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