2.5 Making Human Recourse Decisions

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  • 2.5 Making Human Recourse Decisions
    • 49 Organisational Structures
      • Hierarchical and Flat Structures
        • A hierarchical Organisation is an organisation with many layers of management, therefore creating a tall organisational pyramid.
          • Advantages:  -Promotion opportunities should appear regularly (clear career path). -Easy to maintain standards across an organisation since authority is strict. -Easier to check everybody's work because of the supervisors at each level.
          • Disadvantage-s -People's position in the management structure shows their level of responsibility and authority. -It is hard for the people at the top to communicate with those at the bottom.    -There can be too many layers of management which slows down decision making.
        • A Flat Organisation is an organisation with few layers of hierarchy - presumably because each manager is responsible for much staff.
          • Disadvantage-s -Each manager is responsible for more people.          -Managers have to rely on junior staff much more to work efficiently and safely. -Can lead to overworking and stress.     -Fewer opportunities for promotion.
          • Advantages:  -Fewer managers are needed, which saves money.           -managers give more responsibility to workers which leads to greater job satisfaction.   -Faster and more efficient way of communicatin-g
      • Centralised and Decentralised Organisations
        • A centralised organisation is an organisation in which most decisions are made at the head office
        • A decentralised organisation is an organisation that allows staff to make decisions at a local level
    • 50 The Importance of Effective Communicatio-n
      • The Purpose of Communicatio-n
        • To Provide and collect information about the business. Managers will have no idea how the business is performing or what staff are doing without it.
        • To give instructions, it is important that staff understand what jobs they have to do.
        • To ensure that all workers are working towards the same goal. It is very important that all workers know the aims of the business
      • What is Effective Communicatio-n
        • To be effective communication has to be: clearly understood, accurate, complete, appropriate, via the right medium and with the chance of feedback.
      • The Purpose of Effective Communicatio-n
        • A business needs to ensure that there are effective communicato-n channels to allow information around it. This process includes a sender, a message, an appropriate medium, a receiver and an opportunity for feedback.
      • The Impact of Insufficient and Excessive communicatio-n
        • Consequence-s of insufficient: Misunderstan-dings and rumours form, inefficiency, low levels of motivation and loss of profit.
        • Consequence-s of excessive: Research shows that if an overloaded manager misses a key message from a customer, eg a change in an order, the customer is disappointed and may refuse to pay.
      • Barriers to Effective Communicatio-n
        • The person sending the message may not explain themselves properly, the reciever may not understand the message, the reciever may not hear the message due to a technical problem or the message may get distorted in transmission.
    • 51 Different Ways of Working
      • Permanent, Temporary and Freelance contracrs
        • Permanent contract=An agreement between a company and an employee, that work and income will be provided constantly into the long-term future.
        • Temporary contract=An agreement between a company and an employee, that work and income will be provided for a specific time period.
        • Freelance contract=An agreement over one job between a company and a self-employed worker
      • The Impact of technology on how we work
        • Technology makes it possible to work at home or abroad instead of the office
    • 52 Effective Recruitment
      • Key job roles and responsibilitie-s
        • Directors= Members of 'the board', set out the main aims and objectives of the business and discuss key decisions
        • Senior Managers – Responsible for organising others to carry out tasks.
        • Supervisors/ Team Leaders – Junior managers make sure that support staff do as they are told
        • Operational and Support Staff – Operational staff= Directly linked to targets. Support staff= Not responsible for targets.
      • How Businesses Recruit People
        • Application Form=The series of questions a job-seeker must fill in when trying trying to get an employer interested in interviewing them.
        • CV=Sets out the persons qualifications, experience and any other relevant facts.
        • References=People such as teachers or previous bosses who are willing to answer questions about the qualities of a job applicant.
    • 53 Effective Training and Development
      • Different ways of training and developing employees
        • Formal Training=The official training programme.
        • Informal Training=The unexpected, unplanned extra advice or demonstration-s that comes from colleagues.

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