2.2 The Cuban Missile Crisis

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  • 2.2 The Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Causes
      • Cuban Revolution
        • January 1959 - Fidel Castro toppled Por-American government of Cuba
          • Eisenhower was concerned
            • American businesses invested heavily in Cuba
              • USA was an important investor in Cuba's main export, sugar
            • America owned most of Cuban land
            • Tension
              • American government reluctantly recognised government
                • refused to provide economic aid
              • Feb 1960 - Castro and Soviet links
                • Khrushchev bought sugar
                  • economic aid
                • Receives arms from USSR
              • May 1959 - Cuban government took over land owned by foreign nationals
          • Fidel didn't want country to be controlled by America
            • Tension
              • American government reluctantly recognised government
                • refused to provide economic aid
              • Feb 1960 - Castro and Soviet links
                • Khrushchev bought sugar
                  • economic aid
                • Receives arms from USSR
              • May 1959 - Cuban government took over land owned by foreign nationals
      • Bay Of Pigs
        • Causes
          • USA concerned on pro-Soviet regime nearby
            • July 1960 - Eisenhower reduced amount of sugar the sugar bought
            • Oct 1960 - Banned all trade links
            • Jan 1961 - Broke diplomatic reactions
        • Kennedy (CIA) used Cuban exiles to launch an invasion and overthrow Castro
          • to look like a Cuban counter-revolution
          • 17 April 1961 - Invasion force of 1400 Cuban exiles landed in Cuba
        • Failure
          • Volunteers had no military experience
          • US couldn't support attack
          • (Cuba) 20,000 soldiers vs 1400 soldiers (US)
          • No support from Cuban citizens
        • Effects
          • Humiliation for US
            • looks like Americans were restoring influence
          • USSR showed that Cubans were happy under Communist Regime
            • little support from citizens
          • Stronger relations (USSR + Cuba)
            • US under direct threat
    • Consequences
      • June 1963 - Hotline between USSR and USA
        • Direct Communication
      • August 1963 - Test Ban Treaty signed
        • GB, USA + USSR
      • 1967 - Outer Space Treaty
        • Prevents nukes in orbit
      • 1968 - Nuclear Non-Proliferation
        • Stops spread of Nukes
    • 14 October 1962 - America U2 plane took pics of launch pads (MRBM)
      • fleet of Soviet Ships seen
      • Reasons for missiles
        • NATO had missiles in Turkey
          • Khrushchev under threat
        • Berlin Wall was a failure for Khrushchev
          • needed to outwit Kennedy
        • Feared American attack
          • if Kennedy overthrew Castro, it would be a failure for Communism
    • Kennedy's Options
      • Invade Cuba
      • Bomb missile sites in Cuba
      • Sink Soviet Ships
      • Missiles in Cuba danger to pride
      • Democratic Party will fail unless something is done
      • Khrushchev thinks he can "play" with Kennedy
    • 13 Days, 16-28 October
      • 16 Oct - ExComm discusses how USA should react
        • met everyday under threat of nuclear war
        • 22 Oct - decided not to attack
          • Naval Blockade
            • 54 bombers w/ 4 nuclear warheads
            • 24 Oct - Soviet ships turned around
            • 26 Oct - Telegram form Khrushchev
              • USSR would remove missiles from Cuba if Americans wouldn't invade
                • Kennedy agreed + Khrushchev sent agreement on 28 Oct
              • 27 Oct - USSR would remove missiles if USA removed missiles from Turkey
                • U2 Plane shot down above Cuba
  • Robert Kennedy + USSR ambassdor removed missiles from Turkey secretly

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