Chemistry 2.1.1

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  • 2.1.1 Atomic Structure and Isotopes
    • Atomic Structure
      • Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus.
      • Electrons are found in shells around the nucleus of an atom
      • Protons 1+ charge, mass of 1               Electrons 1- charge, mass of 1/1874       Neutrons 0 charge, mass of 1
    • Isotopes
      • An isotope is an atom of an element which has the same atomic number but different mass number
    • Relative atomic mass- The weighted mean mass of an atom compared to 1/12 of a C-12 atom
    • Relative isotopic mass -  The mass of an isotopic atom in comparison to 1/12 of a C-12 atom
    • Relative formula mass - eg. CaCo3 = Ca(40.1) + C(12)+O3(16*3) = 100.1
    • Mass Spectometery
      • Used to measure the molecular mass of a substance.
        • In a mass spectrometer, the sample is ionised firstly by firing high-speed electrons at it, and then accelerated.  The time taken for the sample to travel across a drift region and be picked up by a detector is measured. 
  • This can then be used to calculate the relative atomic mass, from which it can be estimated what the sample is.


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