2.1 Berlin 1958-63

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  • 2.1 Berlin 1958-63: Increased Tension and Berlin Wal Impacts
    • Refugee Problem, 1958
      • Causes
        • West Germany successful
        • East Germany unpopular
      • 1958 - 3 million East -> West
        • Many were skilled workers
          • Needed to rebuild economy
        • Communism was propaganda diaster
          • Showed people preferred Capitalism over Communism
      • Nov 1958 - Khrushchev demanded Western countries to recognise East Germany as an official country
        • They refused
        • Khrushchev's Berlin Ultimatum
          • 27 November
            • Berlin should be demilitarised and Western troops withdrawn
            • Berlin should be "free city"
          • Forced the West to talk to East German authorities and acknowledge it was country
          • Consequences
            • West were outraged
              • saw his actions as USSR trying to spread communism
            • Summit Meetings to solve Berlin Problems
              • Summit Meetings, 1959-61
                • Geneva, May 1959
                  • Proposals with no agreement
                  • Camp David, Sep 1959
                    • No agreement
                    • USSR withdrew Ultimatum
                    • Relations improved
                    • Paris, May 1960
                      • 1 May - U2 Spy plane shot down
                      • No decisions made
                      • Vienna, June 1961
                        • Jan - JFK was president
                          • Tried to build up military forces
                            • Increased spending by $2 billion
                          • Tried to resolve difficulties (USSR)
                          • determined not to appear weak and not give control of Berlin away
                          • Refused to give concessions
                        • No decisions made
                        • Khrushchev believed Kennedy was inexperienced
                          • Kennedy new
                          • Bay of Pigs failure
                          • Relationship was very strained
    • Building the Berling Wall
      • Khrushchev's tough stance on Berlin forced Britain, France + USA
        • Increased tension
          • More East G's moved into W  just in case of border
            • August 1961 - 40,000 East G's moved into W in 1 day
      • 12 August 1961 - Barbed wire fence between East and West
      • Consequences of Wall
        • Desperate attempts to escape
        • Wall was finished end of summer
          • Along 27 mile section through centre of Berlin, two walls with a a zone with booby traps, lookout towers and spotlights
            • Guards instructed to shoot anyone making an attempt
      • Impacts on USSR
        • Khrushchev abandoned plans to unite Germany under Soviet
        • Showed people preferred Capitalism over Communism
        • Wall stopped refugees
        • Wall sent message that Communism would survive in Berlin
          • Any plans to reunite Capitalist would fail
      • Impacts on USA
        • USSR closed border w/o USA permission
        • People couldn't escape Communism
        • West Berlin - Freedom and defence against Communism
        • Wall showed Western control in W Berlin
      • Impacts on International Relations
        • Berlin Wall was a powerful symbol of difference between East and West
        • Wall Highlighted Churchill's Iron Curtain speech
          • Both sides argued about Germany since 1945
        • less likely for a war over Berlin
        • Reduced tension between USA and USSR

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