1st September 1939

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  • Created by: gabbyb98
  • Created on: 12-03-15 14:22
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  • 1st September 1939
    • Form
      • Monologue, free verse  (not contained by the patterns of rhyme), formal tone, Simple form with some rhyme.
    • Themes
      • Death
        • From the conservative dark Into the ethical life
      • Democracy and imperialism
        • All that a speech can say About Democracy, And what dictators do, The elderly rubbish they talk
        • Out of the mirror they stare, Imperialism’s face And the international wrong.
      • Individual and universal love
        • "We must love one another or die"
        • For the error bred in the bone Of each woman and each man Craves what it cannot have, Not universal love But to be loved alone.
      • Human effort
        • All that a speech can say About Democracy, And what dictators do, The elderly rubbish they talk
    • References
      • Luther
        • A famous author, who was an anti-Semite, whose work is referred to. 
      • Linz
        • Linz is the third-largest city of Austria (Hitler)
      • Thucydides
        • A famous Greek historian who wrote glowingly about democracy in one of the world’s darkest hours
    • How does Auden tell the story?
      • narrative perspective/ voices: first person narrator who may be Auden, voices of the commuters, self-conscious poetic voice of the seer
        • how does this effect the story?
      • setting: place - America, precisely a dive on Fifty-second Street, strong European context, classical past/ time setting: precise date, outbreak of 2nd World War, etc. 
      • nine stanzas of eleven lines, irregular rhyming pattern, significance of the rhyme of the final lines of the stanzas, etc. 
      • use of military and political imagery, references to  real historical figures, the classics, snatches of speech, use of Americanisms, haunting tone, significance of the title, 

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