19th century medicine.

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  • 19th century medicine.
    • germ theory
      • micro-organisms had been seen through the 18th century but scientists thought they were caused by illness and disease. this theory was called spontaneous generation.
      • Louis Pasteur- was a scientist employed to find out why alcohol was going bad in a brewing company- his answer was germs . to kill these he discovered they had to boil the liquid.
      • Koch- began to study different microbes to see what microbe caused what disease.
        • he managed to identify the anthrax microbe linking germs to human disease. (1875)
    • public health
      • Cholera
        • John Snow- published book after the 1849 cholera epidemic, explaining how cholera was spread through dirty water rather than air.
          • medical opinions ignored his findings so he mapped out the location of each death in local area and connected it with the 'broad street' pump.
      • 1848 public health acts.
        • towns were asked to set up their own local 'Board of Health'
        • town councils were given power to spend money on street hygiene.
        • the results of these were mixed as each town had their  own  autonomy.
        • the Central board of health that set this up was closed down in 1854 as a violation of the governments laissez-faire approach.
      • the Great stink
        • in 1858 London was hit by the stink. this was because The River Thames was so full of sewage and the weather was so hot London resulted in smelling bad.
          • Parliament was centred on the Themes noticed the smell. this prompted them to improve London's hygiene and sewage systems.
            • Politicians funded Bazalgette to build a new sewer system for London. - over 1300 miles of sewers were built.- it took Balzalgette a year and the systems are still used todsy.
      • the second Public Heath Acts- 1875
        • was mandatory to provide: clean water, proper sewage systems, collect rubbish, appoint a medical officer of health.
    • surgery.
      • the use of natural drugs like alcohol for pain relief was less effective and could make patients ill.
        • in 1847 Simpson was testing some drugs and found chloroform was a effective anaesthetic.
      • Lister developed the use of antiseptics in preventing grangrene
        • made a huge difference to survival rates.
      • problems in Surgery.
        • patients often died from clinical shock due to pain (Pain)
        • Before Germ Theory people didn't know about Germs so infections caused death (infection)
        • Patients died from losing too much blood(blood loss)
  • Koch- began to study different microbes to see what microbe caused what disease.
    • he managed to identify the anthrax microbe linking germs to human disease. (1875)

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