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  • 1964: Freedom Summer Canmpaign
    • Aims
      • End the lack of voting rights of African Americans in the Deep South
      • Mississippi the main focus
        • 1962: Only 6.7% of African Americans in the state were registered to vote (lowest percentage in the country)
        • Encourage more people to join the Mississippi Freedom Party (MFDP)
        • Most racist, segregated state in the USA, despite the majority of its population being black
      • The Desegregation of...
        • Buses
        • Trains
        • Lunch counters
    • Organisers
      • Congress Of Racial Equality (CORE)
      • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
      • National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
    • What did the campaign do?
      • More than 80,000 Mississippians joined the new party (MFDP)
        • Elected 68 delegates to the national Democratic Party
        • Challenged the seating of the delegates representing Mississippi's all white Democratic party.
          • While the effort failed, it drew national attention
      • Established 30 Freedom schools- address racial inequalities
        • White college student assigned to teach
        • Curriculum
          • Black history
          • Philosophy of the Civil rights movement
          • Leadership development
        • Hoped for 1000 students (1st year), ended up with 3000
        • School became a model for future social programmes + alternative education systems
    • Impact
      • 30 Black homes and 37 Black churches fire-bombed
      • 80 volunteers beaten by white mobs
      • 21st June: three men murdered by KKK (see Mississippi Murders)
    • Mississippi Murders
      • Who?
        • White co-workers: Andrew Goodman
          • Single gunshot wound
        • White co-workers: Michael Schwerner
          • Single gunshot wound
        • Black volunteer: James Chaney
          • Savage Beating
      • found by a dam, 6 weeks after they had gone to investigate the church bombings near Philadelphia and were arrested
    • Results
      • Negative
      • Positive
        • Brought national attention to the subject of Black desenfranchisement
          • Led to 1965 Voting Rights Act
        • Gave Blacks confidence in political action


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