was the period from 1945-1960 a turning point for Native Americans

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  • 1945 - 1960: Cold War
    • Move to cities encouraged self awareness: 1946 ICC - 78
      • The Indian Claims Commission set up in 1946 by congress tried to deal with land disputes and broken treaties but it was slow to act and only compensation was offered to complainers. More than 370 petitions were filed but only some were resolved.
    • 1953 - Bureau of Indian Affairs
      • The BIA tried to alleviate this problem by setting up ob placements in 1948 in Denver and Los Angeles, from the 1950s and onwards, government policy was to make NS's more urbanised
    • 1956 - Indian Vocational Training Act
      • The Indian  Vocational Training Act of 1956 lured many young NA's away from reservations by giving them more employment opportunities and give them financial support.
    • Assimilation/end to termination policies or seperate identity/special treatment?
      • The government became increasingly aggressive in its  measures to hasten total assimilation in 1953 via the policy of termination. This would terminate all tribal links with the NA's, give them full US rights and make them independent self-supporting Americans
    • Continued grievances over loss of land
    • Growing urbanisation 1960 60,000 left reservations and unemployment.
      • Migration to urban areas was present even before the 2nd world war, it is arguable to say that the war only helped increase this. Those who returned back to reservations found them impoverished due to a collapse in the New Deal funding.


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